Ten unsolved mysteries.
Science — an area of human activity, aimed at the elaboration and systematization of objective knowledge about reality, reports the Chronicle.info with reference on infoniac
It would seem, for humanity is not left unanswered questions, but despite the latest discoveries in different fields of science, many questions scientists are still trying to find answers.
In our review we have collected ten, still unsolved, mysteries of science.
1. Why more matter than antimatter
According to the modern understanding of particle physics, matter and antimatter are identical, but opposite. When they meet, they completely destroy each other and this releases large amounts of energy. Most of these annihilate was going to happen, when the universe was in its infancy. Nevertheless, there remained enough of matter to create the billions of galaxies, stars, planets and everything else.
Most of the discussions happening around b-mesons, subatomic particles with short half-life, which consist of a quark and an antiquark. The decay of B-mesons is slower than the decay anti-B-mesons, and thus could appear a sufficient amount of B-mesons for the formation of everything in the Universe. In addition, B-, D – and K-mesons can oscillate and become antiparticles and back composite particles. According to one hypothesis, mesons, in all probability, return to their normal condition, which is quite possible, because the particles are more than antiparticles.
2. What happened to the whole Li
At the beginning of the Universe when temperatures were incredibly high, isotopes of helium, hydrogen and lithium were synthesized in a large quantity. In the Universe and now the share of hydrogen and helium is very high, but the isotope lithium-7 is found only about one third of the level predicted by the simulation. There are many different explanations why this happened, including the hypothesis with hypothetical bosons known as axions. Also suggest that they were in the core of stars, which our current telescopes and instruments can not detect. But a clear theory of why it happened does not yet exist.
3. Why we sleep
Although we know that those responsible for wakefulness and sleep are circadian rhythms (biological clock), the essence of this phenomenon we are not yet known. Human sleep comprises several 90-minute cycles of brain activity. Each of these cycles consists of gradual, slow dive into the deeper dream, and then a sharp transition in the phase of dreams — the so-called rapid or paradoxical sleep. At the end of the REM sleep cycle either ends and we Wake up, or a new cycle begins. The structure of the human brain is such that in the first half of the night is dominated by slow-wave deep sleep, and the morning enhanced the fast phase of sleep.
In addition to warm-blooded animals (mammals and birds), none of the living beings of these forms of sleep there. From cold-blooded vertebrates and invertebrates sleep period monotonous. However, on a number of grounds, the form of of sleep with different phases is very ancient. Most likely, this form of sleep gives some advantage for survival, because it is entrenched in the course of evolution. But what is that advantage is still unclear.
4. What is gravity
We all know that the gravity of the moon causes the tides, gravity of the Earth keeps us on the earth’s surface, the gravity of the Sun holds our planet in orbit, but how well do we understand this? The gravity impact that large facilities have the opportunity to attract smaller. But why does gravity exist? Why are the atoms so much empty space? Why force that holds together the constituent parts of the atom, different from gravity? Are there particles of gravity? To these questions we can not answer modern level of development of science.
5. Are we alone in the Universe
The dimensions of the universe that we make up 92 billion light-years across filled with billions of galaxies with stars and planets. But the only proof of life only here on planet Earth. The probability that we are the only life form in the Universe everything is small, but why do we to this day no one contacted? It’s called the Fermi paradox. It has been many suggestions why this has not happened, and many of them seem plausible.
There are plenty of scenarios, perhaps we just don’t notice the signals, maybe they were already here, but we don’t know about it, maybe they do not want to communicate with us. Or the frustrating scenario — the Earth is the only inhabited planet in the Universe.
6. What is dark matter
About 80% of matter in the Universe consists of dark matter. Dark matter is a very strange thing, because it does not emit any light. Although for the first time about its existence talking about 60 years ago, still there is no evidence to support this theory.
It seems the most natural assumption is that dark matter consists of ordinary, baryonic matter, for some reason weakly interacting electromagnetic manner and is therefore not detectable in the study, for example, lines of emission and absorption. There are other candidates for the role of dark matter is axions, neutrinos and supersymmetric particles. But the conversation about significant candidates can be taken on the basis of some facts derived from observations, and no such facts.
7. How do we
Where did the life on Earth? How did this happen? Supporters of the theory of “primordial soup” I believe that at the dawn of its development, our fertile planet itself formed more and more complex molecules, which later gave rise to life. This could be in the depths of the ocean, under formation of ice in the craters of volcanoes. While DNA is the predominant basis of life on Earth now, it has been suggested that RNA may dominate the first forms of life.
In addition, the question arises, were there other nucleic acids, in addition to RNA or DNA. Did life only once, or she was born, then was destroyed and then re-emerged? Some believe in panspermia, the hypothesis that life was brought to Earth by meteorites or comets in the form of microbes.
8. How is plate tectonics
This may seem surprising, but the theory of tectonics of lithospheric plates that move continents and cause earthquakes, volcanoes and even forming mountains, is widely known not so long ago. Although first the hypothesis that all continents were once able to be a single entity, was launched back in the year 1500, this idea has been spread only in the 1960s, when there was reasonable physical evidence, the theory of ocean floor spreading, according to which the blocks of lithosphere oceanic crust move apart and the released space is filled with magma generated in the Earth’s mantle. The mystery, however, is what exactly causes the movement of these plates.
9. How is the migration of animals
Many animals and insects migrate throughout the year, trying to avoid the seasonal change of temperature and the disappearance of vital resources of food or in search of a pair. Some overcome for thousands of kilometers and then easily find your way back. Different animals use different navigation techniques, including those which make use of the Earth’s magnetic field and internal compass. However, to understand the whole mechanism of these abilities, like animals know where to go year after year, scientists still can not.
10. What is dark energy
Of all the unsolved mysteries of science — dark energy may be the most mysterious. While dark matter is about 80% of the mass of the Universe, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy which, as scientists believe, is 70% of the total content of the Universe, and because of this energy our universe continues to accelerate. Until scientists have more questions than answers. What does it consist of? Constant if dark energy, or it can be any changes? Is it possible to reconcile the data on dark energy the theory of gravitation of Einstein, or it will need to be revised?
In the early 20th century, scientists believed that they knew everything about the world. However, this opinion was erroneous. And even now, when scientific progress has made great progress, much remains far beyond my understanding.