© RIA Novosti / the Russian defense Ministry
Hundreds of missiles and thousands of warheads, the total power, able several times to destroy any country on Earth, is today the professional holiday is celebrated on the strategic Missile forces (RVSN). This separate branch of the Armed forces for a long time remained the main guarantor of the inviolability of borders of Russia. Now in the Arsenal of the strategic missile forces several types of Intercontinental ballistic missiles, including with multiple warheads and blocks targetable (MIRV). How does this weapons — in the material RIA Novosti.
A matter of time
The first American and Soviet ICBMs were equipped with only one combat unit. Due to low accuracy it was necessary to use nuclear warheads of large capacity to guarantee the target is covered. Therefore, combat units were bulky and very heavy — two to three tons each. To put more than one charge on the rocket did not work technically. For this type of ICBMs were, for example, a Soviet R-7, UR-100 and R-36.
CC BY 4.0 / Ministry of defense of Russia the First launch of a two-stage Intercontinental ballistic missile R-7Technical progress — development of inertial navigation systems ICBMs, reducing their circular probable deviation from the target (CEP), the reduced mass combat units with a capacity of 200-500 kilotons up to 300-500 pounds — led to the fact that in the USSR and the US almost simultaneously began to work out options with multiple warheads on a single missile. In December 1967 the Soviet Union launched the project of an Intercontinental missile R-36P. In the United States engaged in Minuteman ICBMs with multiple warheads.On alert R-36P stood in 1971. the Missile received a so-called warhead scattering type with three warheads with a capacity of 2.3 megatons each. The principle of operation was relatively simple. After the release of the ICBM into orbit and approaching the target blocks were shot and rastolkovali combat stage in different directions. The guidance system could aiming to “land” only one charge. Other blocks were divorced at a relatively small distance. It is possible to sow the mushroom cloud of relatively large area, but did not provide sufficient accuracy. The designers are tasked to eliminate the deficiency in the shortest possible time. And they’ve done a good job.
The missile “bus”
The first Soviet ICBM with multiple warheads and individual guidance units modified UR-100N. The rocket was carrying six warheads with a capacity of one megaton each. The main difference between a self — contained unit dilutions (ADB), called the missile “bus”.
Intercontinental ballistic missile UR-100N Otkliknetsja ballistic missile UR-100N utth – the last and most perfect of the family UR-100 created KB Chelomei.ICBMs launched from the mine or from your mobile carrier, sustainer engine accelerates and pushes her into orbit. Then from the head portion is separated from ADB, along with military units. He has his own engine. Standalone unit coming out on the calculated trajectory of the first warhead, starts it, and then maneuvers, accelerates, shoots again. And so on. Shoot, ADB falls from orbit and burns up in the atmosphere.Separated from the ADB, the weapons continue to fly on a ballistic trajectory or actively maneuvering, depending on the design. Low-power engine that is installed on the warheads, their spins along the axis of motion to stabilize the exchange rate — similar to a rifle. Blocks enter the atmosphere at speeds five to seven kilometers per second, leaving the sky a bright plume.
© RIA Novosti / Sergey Pyatakov.Mobile ground missile complex “YARS”in addition to warheads, the ADB can be equipped with a means of overcoming missile defense. For this purpose, decoys, chaff, station active interference, advanced nuclear explosions, hampering the work of ABM radars, radar-absorbing coatings and a number of other technical solutions.
The advantages of MIRV in front of close-coupled systems is obvious. They allow, without increasing the number of missiles significantly increase the damage to the enemy. The first blow in a nuclear war is applied, as a rule, the positions of the silos of enemy ICBMs. For example, if enemy have 100 monoblock missiles, attackers need to waste your entire Arsenal to destroy them without a guarantee of defeat. Then the attackers remains virtually defenceless in retaliation.
© AP Photo / Vandenberg Air Force Base / Senior Airman Ian Dudley. Start unarmed Minuteman 3 missiles at a military base, the U.S. air force VandenbergIf the opponents have 100 missiles equipped with MIRV, the attacking or the defending country has the opportunity to strike multiple warheads on each launcher, keeping an Arsenal in reserve. In addition, one missile with MIRV capable of hitting targets even in different regions of the country.The most powerful standing armed with Russian strategic missile forces missiles with multiple warheads of individual guidance is not the first decade remain ICBM R-36M2 “Governor” (according to Western classification — SS-18 “Satan”). They are able to throw into enemy territory ten warheads with a capacity of 800 kilotons to one megaton each. “Governors” will be replaced on combat duty ICBM of a new generation RS-28 “Sarmat”.
© Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation.Download of ballistic missile “Sarmat” before the start during testing ofthe Performance characteristics of the “Sarmatian” was first revealed on the forum “Army-2019”. The range of advanced missiles — a record 18 thousand kilometers, length of 35.5 meters, a diameter of three meters. The IDB will deliver to the target of ten to 15 warheads, depending on their capacity. In addition, the RS-28 is designed for controlled hypersonic warheads, Avangard, dispersing in the atmosphere up to 15 of Mach numbers, which makes them invulnerable to any existing and future missile defense systems.Andrew Kots