How to trim the apricot you need to know to ensure that the tree stays healthy for many years abundantly fruitful.
The apricot is a delicate tree. A really long time apricots were cultivated only in areas with warm climates, but new varieties developed by scientists and breeders make it possible to grow this tree in the middle zone of Ukraine, informs Rus.Media.
Apricots are usually well tolerate a decrease in temperature to -30 °C, but the most dangerous spring frosts, as the plant pretty early coming out of dormancy and intense cold at this time, striking flower buds. However, many gardeners successfully grow apricots on private land.
Features of the structure of the root system
The root system of apricot is powerful enough and is located mainly at depths of 30 to 60 cm the part of the roots can penetrate down to 5 m. a special Feature of the root system is the fact that the radius of the spread of the roots is almost two times the projection of the crown. This circumstance must be taken into account that the processing of the soil not to damage the roots of the tree.
The structural features of the aerial parts of apricot
The aboveground part of the apricot consists of a trunk with a length of approximately 40-60 cm and a crown formed of skeletal and fruit branches. Fruiting occurs on one-year shoots and fruit formation (spur, bukeni twig).
I must say that in the past scientists-agronomists of different countries long enough arguing about the need for pruning apricot trees. Cited various arguments for and against this agronomic technique, but still won the group of scientists who defended the need formative pruning in the first years of the life of the plant and carrying out of all complex of works on pruning, based on the state of the tree.
By practice it was found that correct formation of the crown improves the livelihoods of the tree, prolonging its fruiting, as well as affect the quantity and quality of the fruit. The branches of apricot, giving a large annual increase, do not form a sufficient number of side branches, and this can only be achieved through cropping.
The formation of the crown of the tree
Crown formation begins immediately in the year of planting. Pruning is carried out only in early spring before the SAP flow, as autumn pruning can result in the freezing of the wood. The best crown shape for apricot in our time is considered bezarasa with the presence of 5-7 skeletal branches, which are located on the trunk at a distance of approximately 40 cm from each other.
The first year of formation
In the first year after planting it is cut at the level of 80-90 cm above the ground. Of the lateral branches pick the two strongest and well located and trimmed them so that the center conductor was above their tops at 20-25 cm and Other branches cut. In early summer, remove the stems, located on trunks and twigs, which grew at a sharp angle.
The second year of formation
For the second year on the bole leave two branches located above the skeletal branches last year. They need to be shortened. not to exceed the length of the branches, which is located above the conductor. With this purpose, shorten last year’s growth.
The formation in subsequent years
In the fourth year, the tree gives a first, albeit modest yields. When the tree is formed, the intensive cropping doesn’t need him anymore, because the more pruning of the apricot, the more thickened the crown and a smaller harvest. The main condition in this period – the preservation of an optimal balance between fruiting and vegetative growth. Well-formed tree yields about 60-100 kg of fruit depending on variety and has a rather high frost resistance of flower buds.
In this regard, the adult fruiting tree is carried out only prortion and sanitary pruning.
If in some cold winters the trees are still freeze slightly, you need to carry out restoration pruning, which removes damaged branches, and instead of young shoots form a new one.
With age, when the length of annual growth is reduced, and the yield is reduced, it is recommended to conduct renewal pruning by translation of the main skeletal branches 3-4-year-old wood. Young shoots in places thickening of thinned, leaving the strongest and most well positioned to bring them to fruition. For all types of trimming to do a neat even slices and carefully treat the wounds garden varom.