Day in history. 29 Oct: he died a philosopher, who was called the “Russian Socrates” and “Kharkiv Diogenes”

День в истории. 29 октября: скончался философ, которого называли «русским Сократом» и «харьковским Диогеном»

© © The artist Anna Egorova this day 225 years ago, on 29 Oct 1794, died one of the most remarkable thinkers of the Russian Baroque Grigory Savvich Skovoroda. Left, in his own words, not just of life, of material existence, and flee from the real world, trying to catch it in a net of temptations, and are unworthy of human foolishness.Well known for his autoepitopes: “World caught me, but not caught”.

The craving for change places

To catch him was difficult, because the son of a small Cossack, who became a clergyman, loved and knew how to use small. And in one place too long didn’t sit up. At the beginning of his adult life he had all the chances to make any career in the Russian Empire. Because in addition to Cossack ancestors of his father, had the Tatar ancestors of his mother, who descended from an ancient though impoverished Crimean sort of Shang-Giray. However, there coexisted two principles that oppose careerism. To the little Russian with the wicked view of life was added dreaminess of the Crimean and Eastern fatalism.From 1741 to 1743 years, Gregory is a student at the Kiev theological Academy, also known as the Kyiv-Mohyla. In 1747 it began to be called Kyiv-Mohila-Zaborovskaya Academy to honor thus the memory of the Metropolitan Raphael zaborowski, made as one lot for the development of this educational institution, which laid together with the Kharkov Collegium Foundation not only spiritual, but in many ways, secular education in the Russian Empire.

That the Metropolitan Raphael, take the child Gregory talent for singing, as is common among Ukrainians, sent him to St. Petersburg, in the court chapel, where Pan became close with a fellow countryman with a similar fate — Alexey Razumovsky, who became the morganatic husband of Empress Elizabeth.

Not simple was the groom

Three years spent in the capital of the Empire, has made an indelible Gregory, but depressing.

This is very well captured Ivan Kavaleridze is the author of Soviet biographical film “Skovoroda” and three sculptured statues of his hero. Of course, he, taking off his masterpiece, in 1959, focused on the fact that the city air was harmful to the freedom-loving son of the steppes that he’s in no position to kowtow to the powers that be.

But in fact, only the first statement can be considered more or less correct, because, as we know, Pan himself was not quite so simple in origin, and a favorite of the Queen were friendly, and the entree was a prominent family in the Imperial administrator Poltavtsev, the head of which had his mother’s cousin.And subsequent experience confirmed, that did not avoid our philosopher of noble estates. And how easy were in them so easily in and out of these.

A characteristic example comes from stay the Pan in the position of a personal teacher rich little Russian landowner Tomar. With a student Grigory Savvich did not get along, and called him a cultural the researchers write his biography, “pork head”. The mother of the child was outraged and pointed out the intemperate language teacher at the door. Now after not so long time after this she wrote the Pan of a letter of apology and request to return. He listened, and Tomar, Jr. eventually became a prominent figure in the Empire of Alexander I, always pointing out that everything in life had the teacher of the Pan.

The same could tell and the most famous disciple of Grigory Savvich, Michael Kowaleski, the pinnacle of a career that began in Ryazan governorate. Although, without a doubt, in the memory of descendants he left primarily as the first biographer of the philosopher. His “Life of Gregory Skovoroda” (1794), still remains the main source for studying the life and work of little phenomenon.

The construction of a philosophical system

The average age of life Skovoroda spent in wandering. Few years wandered through Austria, Hungary, Poland, Germany, and Italy. And in his declining years, it will be easy to insert into the speech and writings not only your Latin and Greek words, but also examples of vocabulary Polish, German, Hungarian.

After returning home, torn between the Pan Academy in Kiev, in Kharkov Collegium and estates and not very enlightened landowners, desired to combed the education of their youths and lads dear people who had their own system of views on the world, religion, people.

Although well-known historian of philosophy radloff cold noticed that frying Pan, unfortunately, did not leave behind a philosophical school, system its had it. To judge her would may literary and philosophical experiments Grigory Savvich.

Russian Socrates?

So who was, and taught Pan?

It was called the Russian Socrates, Diogenes Kharkiv, Spinoza, the secret father of Slavophilism, one of the first in Russia’s peasant Democrats, allegedly the people’s philosopher, the first philosopher in Russia in the strict sense of the word, Apostle of rationalism, a mystic, and a true child of the rationalist age of Enlightenment.

Each of the definitions was a little of both.

Socrates, because he moved from place to place and almost all of his stuff was written in the form of dialogues. A rationalist? Yes, at the same time, believer, do not hesitate to say that paganism was an anticipation of Christianity in Russia.Skovoroda, we think, was first and foremost a supporter of universal human equality and the progressives.

He hated all the showers serfdom and believed in the possibility of correcting individual human soul. Individual. Mass, worldly noise, illogical annoyed him. He was not a philosopher at all. On the contrary — was very biased person, above all putting the truth and personal dignity.

According to Pan, the God, who created all and creates moment to moment, the power is free to give life, fate and death a person chooses.

The looks of it, due to life circumstances had set out some eclectic, but the eighteenth century was generally the epitome of eclectic and Baroque — his prophet. Pan was a man of the Baroque, the son of his Russian homeland, though aware of his little Russian specificity.

Mother (the Russian people), he came from behind in the ancient Chronicles called Kiev, or as they said “Hetman”, and the native Slobodian (now Kharkiv, Sumy and part of the Voronezh and Belgorod regions) considered an aunt. And it is also true, because on earth Slobodian right-Bank Ukraine came in just 70-80 years before his birth.

Unbearably Russian language

Whatever it was, Grigory Skovoroda will remain forever in our memory as the first original Russian philosopher, teacher and educator.

All that he wrote, created using the beautiful Russian language of his time. It is the Language of Lomonosov (Arkhangelsk), Trediakovsky (Astrakhan), Radishcheva (Kazan) and Skovoroda (Kharkiv).And it is always very infuriated Ukrainian nationalists who understood that to take away from Russian history, the great teacher would, only attributing to him any particular language. And he, unfortunately, even the mixture of them does not catch the left. The Church, a very archaic origin, which in General has played a special role in the creation of Ukrainian language in his speech a lot. But it’s all the same Russian language. And poured buckets of dirt on the name of philosopher and poet.

Sinned nationalist views in his youth, Nikolai Gogol, changed them and got along very well with the Pan on one linguistic, mental and historical field. Highly respecting the forerunner of many stories Gogol’s stories can be seen in “stories” and reflections of the Pan.

But Shevchenko could not resist. He was called the philosopher “stupid”, “wrong little Russian” and his philosophy “clueless”. Was great specialist, to be sure.

Roughly the same can be read in the classic of Ukrainian literature Ivan Nechuy-Levitsky, and the host is not known to anyone their epigones in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in Poland and in the Ukrainian-Russian white emigration.

The Ukrainians captured him, but “ne has Vimala”

In the USSR, the posthumous glory of the Pan also did a kind of somersault.

First, in 1944, Joseph Stalin personally took care of the organization of the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the “Russian and Ukrainian philosopher Hryhoriy Skovoroda”. Then, when you flirted with the nationalists Khrushchev in Kiev has released two volumes of a philosopher in the Ukrainian language. Someone had fun translators. But in the time of Brezhnev was followed by the counterattack — two volumes republished in Russian. But with a new spelling.

In General, nationalists in the struggle for the name of one of the most prominent philosophers of the age of Enlightenment failed.

In modern Ukraine the attempt to ascribe the Pan to the Ukrainian shareware philosophy with the additions of “clever words” made Oksana Zabuzhko. But apart from me, who wrote the name, probably none of the readers had never heard anything about her or her “Skovorodino” book.

Let’s explore that. To paraphrase the Pan, note, caught, caught him in the world of Ukrainian nationalism, but never caught. Too turned out our Russian philosopher.Oleg Izmaylov

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