Employers are willing to hire people without experience and pay them a good salary.
In Ukraine there is a great shortage of skilled workers, despite the fact that employers are willing to hire people without experience and pay them a good salary. “Apostrophe” understood why there was such a problem and how to solve it.
In Ukraine there is a shortage of skilled workers. That is absolute fact, which says it all. According to statistics, today the number of holders of University diplomas more than five times the number of those who graduated from vocational school. And, if in European countries the professional education receive 50% of high school graduates, some 70%, and even more, in Ukraine, only about 15%.
What happened? This is partly due to the fact that after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the domestic economy began to take in deep crisis, resulting in many enterprises, which employ millions of people, began to close (and those that are not closed, idled for lack of orders, and are not paid a salary). And all these millions of workers were forced to seek other ways of earning.
In addition, since the first years of independence in a society rooted opinion, right in many respects that a good salary can ensure the higher education, but because the majority of Ukrainian high school graduates annually join the ranks of the students in the hope of receiving the coveted high school diploma. In a country with millions of useless lawyers, managers, marketers, and, for example, a skilled worker in production is very difficult to find.
As told to “Apostrophe” in the expert-analytical center hh.ua | GRC, the staff shortage is present in almost all the specializations.
“Thus, during the analyzed period, the largest demand was for movers and laborers on one job in these specializations accounted for less than one summary”, — noted in the centre. Only in specialties such as machinist production, the excavator operator, a welder and a packer and plasterer a number of CVS exceeds the number of job offers.
It is significant that almost half (46%) of employers are willing to hire employees with minimum experience of 1 year, and 42% of companies agree to a complete novice. As for wages, in 56% of the proposals this year, often featured figures from 7,000 to 13,000 USD, and for a quarter of all vacancies (26%) it was about the salary to 20 thousand hryvnia.
According to HR expert website rabota.ua Tatyana Pushkinoj, today the situation is such that older workers retire, even if they are trying to hold, and the youth for the vacated jobs especially do not want to go. Why? Many enterprises are still quite low wages, and unattractive (versus office) work environments.
“Cold, dusty, dirty. And if you can avoid it, people do. Also nobody canceled the harm (in many productions — “the Apostrophe”),” — said Pashkina “Apostrophe”.
Qualification is always a price
The problem is compounded by the fact that the Ukrainians are leaving to work abroad, and there, in addition to programmers, which is not so much need mostly just representatives of working specialties. And leave mainly the most qualified.
Employers themselves are highly concerned about the personnel situation in Ukraine and their vocational training.
According to Director for sustainable development of DTEK Alexander Kucherenko, the current educational system is unable to prepare workers who would meet the requirements of modern production and would be in demand in the labour market.
“DTEK, for example, can today find in the market of highly skilled workers for their business: thermal energy, oil and gas production, power generation, coal production. Because in order to hire a current graduate of high school or College, it is necessary to complete their education, and often, in fact, to retrain, he said in comments to “Apostrophe”. — For our company search and recruitment is complicated by the fact that we are engaged in high-tech production with very stringent requirements, particularly in matters of safety”.
The press service of the mining and metallurgical company “Metinvest” declared “Apostrophe”, that today the market needs at least three times more skilled workers than exists in fact.
“Ukraine is not preparing a sufficient number of specialists of scarce professions, others are often reluctant to retrain for these specialties. The man, who had not worked in manufacturing, it is very difficult to change their mentality and physically hard to get used to the new conditions”, — said the press service.
The company believes that the resolution of this matter could help the state program on vocational guidance of youth, promotion of working professions, as well as modernization of the material base of vocational schools, increased scholarships for students of vocational education to the level of scholarship in institutions of higher education, cooperation with employment centers (the connection of the communication channels of the centers of employment to attract employees, providing material-technical base of employers, scholarships from employers, expanding the number of professions based on the needs of employers).
To the ground, and then?
“Bias” in the labour market is a direct result of the destruction of the system of professional education in Ukraine. One reason for this plight is extremely low prestige of working professions. This tradition “was born” in the Soviet times, and in the years of Independence has only worsened. There are other reasons, I’m sure the expert direction of the “Education” of the analytical center “Ukrainian Institute for the future” Nikolay Skiba.
“The second reason is logistical as institutions of professional training (as employers) and teachers. Not all, but most colleges and schools have equipment that is no longer used in the actual production. The question arises, what can we learn in such conditions? And it pretty much pushes, he said in comments to “Apostrophe”. — The third reason is the lack of communication with the production”.
Authorities understand the complexity of the situation and even make attempts to improve it. So, last year, relevant departments have been developed the conceptual principles of the “modern vocational education”, whose main goal was focus on the needs of the market. These principles, in particular, provides for the establishment of a network of the multipurpose centers of professional improvement, which was to become “a platform for cooperation of TVET institutions (vocational education), local authorities and employers”.
This year under the new government adopted the law “On trade predictem education”, which provides creation of conditions for the combination of the actual education with the elements of production with the aim of training day needs of the labour market. In addition, it is assumed that funding for training in priority for the market of professions will be at the expense of the state.
Another novelty will be that in institutions of vocational education will accept without age restrictions. This means that a new and needed profession will be able to and those who have long graduated from high school.
The new government has also decided to join the solution to the problem of vocational education, typing it into the program of its activities. So, in the program of the Cabinet of Ministers the relevant office the goal is that high school graduates had a wide range of institutions for high-quality professional education with further employment. The effectiveness of achieving this objective includes the following: an increase in the percentage of high school graduates who choose vocational (vocational and professional predecree) education after school, at least up to 45%, the percent of graduates of vocational (vocational and professional predischarge) education, employed in Ukraine after 6 months and 1 year after graduation, including profession (specialty)”.
How it will be implemented (and whether), is still unknown. However, the known methods of vocational education that bring results. One of them is the transition to so-called dual education, says Nikolay Skiba.
The principle of dual training is that theoretical training is carried out on the basis of educational institutions, and practical — directly at the workplace. Dual education originated in Germany as a positive example for other European countries. In this system actively participates in the businesses make the order to educational institutions for a specific number of specialists, and employers even take part in the curriculum.
It is not surprising that such a program provides a high level of employment of graduates of vocational educational institutions.
But this system will operate efficiently only if educational institutions go to learn.
“So, the first thing you need to do is to create a real system of professional orientation of schoolchildren in the format of dual training, — says Tatyana Pashkina. — There are employers who would love on the tour was hosted by the youth. If you like, you can think about where and what internships to organize the children tasted, felt, and realized that you don’t have unemployed lawyers to learn.”
And the government could introduce a system encouraging enterprises involved in dual training. For example, through some tax or other incentives.
In addition, the need to revise the legislation on employment, because now even to free training to issue of the child not because of the terrible bureaucracy.
“Many employers would like to help, but they want to see that there is an initiative from the state, and will not be punished”, — said Tatyana Pashkina.
Have this problem and the social aspect.
“Given that the level of salaries in Ukrainian industry is not lower than in European countries, the necessary social programs and interaction with government to improve infrastructure and quality of life in industrial regions”, — said the press service of “Metinvest”.
Meanwhile, employers, especially large ones, the lack of assistance from the state, are trying to solve their problems with the staff, investing in training of employees significant resources. So, DTEK has 11 branches DTEK Academy at the training centers of enterprises, where the annual training of more than 35 thousand people in 206 occupations. Depending on the specialty, training lasts from 3 to 12 months. Each curriculum is a balance of theory and practice in the ratio of 30% to 70% respectively. At the time of practical training for each student is assigned a qualified mentor. And after successful completion of the course the new employee is allowed to work.
“Let me emphasize that this training is fully paid by the company DTEK”, — said Alexander Kucherenko.
In addition, DTEK is developing professional standards for blue-collar occupations.
“And our initiative, the two sector councils criticize them, and output to the level of industry professional standards. It is important to understand that professional industry standards are the basis for state standards of vocational education. This allows to reduce the gap between the theoretical knowledge, received by “students” in vocational training institutions and the practical requirements of a modern employer”, — said the representative of the company.
Metinvest also developed a range of activities. In particular, the company conducts regional and all-Ukrainian competitions of professional skills for students on work qualifications and carries out professional training at our own licensed training centres, hires in the labor market of unskilled staff and teach it in their training centres, implements the dual form of education to increase the proportion of practical training at the employer.
At the same time, as told in the press service of “Metinvest”, the company initiates and participates in the review of professional and educational standards, resulting in standards of training in educational institutions to the requirements of employers, facilitates the professional development of teachers of educational institutions on the programs of the company, provides access to educational-methodical and material base of enterprises, including curricula, modern electronic teaching AIDS, simulators and electronic simulators.