“It was in Griboyedov”. “Literary cookery” visiting Bulgakov

«Дело было в Грибоедове». "Литературная кулинария" в гостях у Булгакова

© RIA Novosti,“Literary cookery” cannot be complete without mentioning the fifth Chapter of the novel “Master and Margarita”. All the food in the works of Mikhail Bulgakov is, frankly, not the most significant place. However, in this fragment there is a real cult edisonstra, this “cult” there is absolutely not accidental. Bulgakov evil mocks Metropolitan literary get-together, for which, as later wrote to the brothers Strugatsky, it was important to “get food”, and not to create a “deathless prose”.

However, to be honest, for Bulgakov this was also important — in the beginning of his Moscow career, they with his wife, Tatiana Lappasdesperately hungry. But the writer was intolerant of their weaknesses. In others.

And to the brothers in the literary workshop it was unfair — it is in the 20-30-ies was written a lot of books, awarded various prizes (up to Sholokhov’s Nobel prize) and became a literary classic still during lifetime of their authors.

Historical prototypes

In the opinion of the majority of researchers, under the “art” refers to the mansion of Alexander Herzen on Tverskoy Boulevard. Now there is the Institute of literature, and in 1920-e years it were the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (RAPP), the Moscow Association of Proletarian Writers (MAPP) and Literary Organization of the red Army and Navy (LOCAF).

In the restaurant “Griboyedov house” reflected the traits of not only the restaurant of the House of Herzen, but also restaurant of the Club of theatrical workers, the Director of which at different times was Yakov Danilovich Rozental , nicknamed “the Beard” (Yuri Olesha gave him the nickname “asshole in the bushes”, so it is unknown why), which served as the prototype of Bulgakov Archibald Archibaldovich.

This figure was truly epic. According to the Director of CDL Boris Filippov, “he had impressive growth, distinguished appearance, a thick black, Assyrian cone, bigger, chest, beard (compare Bulgakov: “out on the veranda, black-eyed handsome man with a pointed beard, in a frock coat and a Regal gaze swept their possessions” — Ed.). Rosenthal was not just an administrator and a natural cook-virtuoso, perfectly knowing the restaurant business, but also a gracious host who created the particular comfort of home and intimacy in your institution.” Leonid Utesov gave a similar assessment: “He not only knew all the theatrical world, but also the taste of everyone, was able to convince that here is to relax, not to work on the implementation plan for wine and appetizers”. Mention Rosenthal is in the diary of Elena Sergeevna Bulgakova.

By the way, the funny thing was, in the variant of 1934 Archibald Archibaldovich out of the restaurant before the fire and with empty hands, and in the final text (as far as we can speak of the “final text” as applied to the unfinished novel) with fillets. Apparently, Bulgakov knew something…
Restaurant home Herzen was listed as a canteen of Soviet writers and enjoy a variety of benefits, but in practice was a commercial establishment. In 1929 the local Committee of writers considered “totally unacceptable the presence of literary social organizations of the restaurant that sells alcoholic beverages and arrange Foxtrot evening with the participation of nepmansky-bourgeois audience.” In 1931 against the dining room was taken, and the case was Rosenthal even handed over to the Prosecutor. He is charged, in particular, “overstock pantry white flour”. In 1932, the restaurant was closed, but Olga Etingof argues that “preserved membership cards of the dining room Committee of the writers in the House of Herzen, issued in December 1932”.

Boris Sokolov suggests that the scene with the restaurant Ivan Homeless is, in some ways, a retelling of booze and scandal, arranged by Sergei Yesenin in this restaurant on the night of 22 to 23 December, 1925 (five days later he died).

The restaurant of the Club of theatrical workers, located in Staropimenovsky lane, in the warm worked on Strastnoy Boulevard, which housed the newspaper and magazine Association (“Rurgaz”). In the garden of “Gorgaza” could be used only with special permits (Sokolov sees in this point a reference to the novel by Anatole France “a white stone” of 1904, where the hero, being in a socialist future, can’t get to the restaurant, as he is required to present a membership card of any labor cooperative). In this garden played jazz orchestra Alexander Tsfasman, whose repertoire was Foxtrot “Hallelujah” by the American composer Vincent youmans of.

The fire in the “Griboyedov” is clearly associated with the “Literary memoirs” of Alexander Kubicheskogo (the author of a biography of Griboyedov) and the memoirs of the widow of the writer and journalist Ivan panayev, which describe “Apraksinskaya fire” of 1862. You didn’t think Koroviev and Behemoth from the ceiling of aliases took?

As for the “Colosseum”, which was a competitor to “Griboyedov”, then the opinions of bulgakovanb diverge. According to one version meant the restaurant of the hotel “Metropol”, suggests that geographic reference for Theatrical fare.

But maybe that meant the hall of columns, which in 1934 passed the Congress of the Union of writers. Bulgakov there was not invited, but I knew about the truly locallove feasts given there — the Union daily spend on food for 40 rubles per person. Remember: “at the Coliseum a portion of perch costs thirteen roubles fifteen kopecks, and we have — five-fifty!” (actually lunch at a nice restaurant, no a La carte dishes on individual order, at the time cost up to five rubles).

“The bunch of grapes (in reality, all the same hand — Ed.) in the face of the first available young man” received at the final Banquet well-known Bulgakov Director of the Chamber theatre of Alexander Tairov, put in 1928-29 years the play “the Crimson island”.
Than fed in Bulgakov’s “Griboyedov”

Natural dining room “of the house of Herzen”, as you can understand, was not too rich. Rather atmospheric. But Archibald Archibaldovich, the case was set wide.

So, what boasting of a poet named Ambrose (by the way, the name is derived from “ambrosia” — the food of the Olympian gods) to his acquaintance Foca at the entrance to the courtyard, where entry is restricted to ticket Massolit?

First and foremost, of course, “batch and perch AU naturel”. “Sheer virtuosity!”.

In cookbooks of the time of such meals is not, but we can assume that we are talking about fish in own juice or very close to it. It must be borne in mind that the current rules catch of pike-perch per serving can’t arrange it — they were too big. Bulgakov probably refers to fish change.

In a cookbook Zelenko, edition of 1902, the perch is recommended to maintain three or four hours on the ice, rolling in the ring, tying thread and boil to a boil on the grill fish pot in chicken broth. And in the “Companion of the housewife” Uvarova, edition of 1927, is offered broth instead of cold water, and the fish draped roots of celery, parsley, onions. Serve fish with boiled potatoes, cauliflower and German sauce based on mayonnaise.

“The sturgeon, sturgeon in a silver-plated pan, sturgeon pieces layered crayfish tails and fresh caviar” — well, again, refers to fish cooked with onions and carrots and with the addition of white wine. The fish in the broth cools, turning into a jelly which is served with horseradish or mayonnaise. In the book Uvarova sturgeon are invited to cook in cucumber pickle, with the addition of cucumbers (probably the same salt in the recipe is not specified) and pickled mushrooms.

Eggs of kokott and sampinjonu puree in cups. Quite the contrary — it’s the eggs in the puree. Puree is made from roasted mushrooms with onions and cream in a blender. Then it is laid out in the cups (so they are called “cocotte” or pot for roasting striped), they break the egg, which you can sprinkle cheese and/or breadcrumbs and bake.

The quails alia Genovese. The whole quail was supposed to dip in mayonnaise sauce with grated Parmesan cheese, dipped in a little melted butter, roll in breadcrumbs and fry on the grill or in the butter.

Filetici of thrushes with truffles. This is a complex dish that is prepared from several components. First, the actual filei Drozdov must stew in butter (to cook in a small amount of liquid in a closed pot). Secondly, preparing a puree of stewed to readiness livers thrushes or other birds (in these times — in a blender). Thirdly, liver puree mixed with mashed boiled truffles and egg and cooked for a couple in the form. Laid from the form of puree obkladyvaetsya fileame and poured separately prepared thick broth from the bones of thrushes.

Also refers to soup printanier (aka — jardinier). Recipe from the book Zelenko is a light spring vegetable soup with beef broth, carrots, new potatoes, peas and roasting of greens (lettuce, leeks, sorrel, spinach). But in the famous work of Elena molokhovets 1861 a key element of this soup is turnips, in addition, add cauliflower, and greens (dill only) not fried.

“The solitary snipe, Jack snipe, snipe, woodcock in season, quail, snipe?”. It’s all small game. Birds covered with bacon and tied with thread, put on a spit. Roasted on a spit for about half an hour. Under the bird put a dish of oil and poured dripping with fat. Then removed from the spit, freed from the threads, laid on large croutons and doused in red sauce. Thrushes, quails, larks, Buntings were treated the same. Tied, put on spit, roasted in a similar way, only when it is ready, put on toast, stuffed Grotanol (liver stuffing with bacon).
“One Karsky shashlik! Zubrik two! Flyaki gospodarskye!” — command, sounding in the kitchen of the restaurant. If fljaki, a clear dish, the “Kara” and “Zubrik” sound like the names of the waiters, but experience tells me that numbers is the number of portions and, therefore, we are talking about a abbreviated name.

“Zubrik”, most likely vodka-Zubrovka.

And “Kara” — a kebab Kara (we are talking about the city of Kars — ancient capital of Armenia, now in Turkey). In Soviet times, this kebab was purely a food dish. On it were large pieces of meat a round shape weighing up to 500 g, cut in the loin of a lamb carcass, alternating with sheep’s tail fat, in a special marinade. The willingness of such a barbecue is achieved gradually, it is periodically cut into thin slices 1.5 cm (like Shawarma). There are also more traditional versions of this kebab.

Flyaki gospodarskye — a dish of Polish cuisine, which is a stew of beef offal (in Polish “flaki” — tripe). The udder, or if it’s flyaki on-Warsaw, scar. There are options with pork stomach. The udder is cooked in bone broth with added fried or steamed vegetables (onions, carrots, celery, parsley root) and roasted flour.

Separately featured sausages in tomato sauce — they Woland (or rather his entourage) treats hangover Stepa Likhodeyev. At least the pot was on the table. There is nothing complicated — sliced boiled sausages and cooked in a specially prepared tomato sauce.

In General, the diet of Soviet writers was arranged well.Vasily Stoyakin

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