Nicholas, Claus or Klaus?

 

Николай, Мороз или Клаус?

Hello, farmers! Everything looked yesterday under the pillow? Candy found? And to wear you were looking for? No? So, maybe you’ve grown? Or ill-behaved the whole year? The feast of St. Nicholas came to our everyday life relatively recently. Before Valentine’s Day and Halloween, but later than Coca Cola brought in perestroika Soviet Christmas grandfather from Western Europe named Santa Claus, whom we mistakenly equal with Santa Claus. Explain in order…

19 December in the country to start the Christmas holidays. Europe has long been a Christmas because her first Christmas, and then NG, and we reverse. But finally, and to our street made it a holiday. In towns and advanced villages open new year’s “Yolka”. In Kiev in the evening, too, will light the main Christmas tree of the country. And who will do it? By St. Nicholas, who will become the owner of all of the holidays! And his guests of honor – the first persons of the country and its capital.

You know, I’m actually more in the economy on corruption investigations. Terribly far from theology. But I can’t understand why the lighting of the main tree of the country is not entrusted to the mayor and not the President, and to St. Nicholas, Archbishop of Myra in Lycia, the Wonderworker?

Because if you approach the issue thoroughly, Saint Nicholas is not the pastoral character of the festive animations. Yes, the protector of children considered to be true: the Bishop of Myra had a reputation as a “secret donor” – the person who could do something good quickly. Everyone knows that he secretly threw gifts into food and put the door shoes. And the poor girl has helped to marry the beloved, giving her money for a dowry.

But, to put it mildly, is a later, adapted version of the Holy acts. Just not all early Christian legends suitable for discussion at the holiday table and, especially, on the ignition of the Christmas tree.

Actually Saint Nicholas is the patron Saint of children and students-seminarians because, following Nicea during the great famine, he caught the innkeeper for the butchering of human flesh. Forced to take himself to a barrel where he kept the meat. And raised three abducted children, which the innkeeper and his wife had their throats cut and salted the meat in barrels. This, by the way, there is quite a lot of famous works of painters.Life Nicholas was generally severe. In the year 303 Diocletian issued an edict to legitimize the systematic persecution of Christians throughout the Empire. And the young priest was imprisoned, where he spent eight years. While in prison, despite torture, Nicholas continued to preach Christianity.

In may of the year 305 the emperors Diocletian and Maximian abdicated, after which dramatic changes occurred in policy towards the Christians. On the reign of the Holy equal to the apostles Constantine, Saint Nicholas was restored to his flock, which joyfully received back their guide and intercessor.

Along the way he resurrected a sailor off the mast. The sailor, who appeared together with Nikolai in the Church, instead of praying began to tell everyone about his miraculous rescue by a man named nikei-Laos. Rumours had reached the fathers of the Church, and they had no choice but to elect Nicholas the new Bishop.

Then Bishop Nicholas became a defender of the three unjustly sentenced to death, the Byzantines, and performed many other good deeds. But for new year holidays they have nothing. The transformation into “father Christmas” was gradual.

In the 10th century in Cologne Cathedral on the day of memory of St. Nicholas December 6 students of the parish school began to distribute the sweets. And later in Germany in the houses began to hang shoes or socks for St. Nicholas to put gifts to children. These traditions quickly spread across Europe. It lasted for several centuries. Nicholas himself, as a symbol of goodness and charity, and Christmas itself. Well, the New year as the new year.

But then joined the case Americans. Not without cost. Traditions associated with greeting children in St Nicholas day, the ocean brought by the Dutch colonists who founded in the 1650’s, the settlement of New Amsterdam, now transformed into the city of new York.

In 1822, a teacher of Oriental and Greek literature at Columbia University Clement Clarke Moore wrote for his children in verse of the Christmas tale “the Night before Christmas or a visit of St. Nicholas” on fairy-tale character, giving gifts to children. On Christmas eve, 1823, the poem was published in the newspaper Sentinel. In the text of Nicholas several times referred to as Claus (the Dutch variant of the name Nicholas).

In 1863, the American artist Thomas Nast, who worked in Harper’s Weekly, used the character of Santa Claus, drawn based on the book by Clement Clark Moore, in his series of political caricatures in the form of a hero bearing gifts.The artist first mentioned the fact that Santa lives at the North pole and maintains a special book which records good and bad deeds of children. Thus the Archbishop of Lycia (an ancient country in southern Asia Minor, was situated on the territory of modern Turkish provinces of Antalya and Mugla) moved to the North, dressed in red coat and brought deer.

Final commercialization of Santa Claus and turning him into a character in the play occurred in 1931, when the company Coca-Cola launched an advertising campaign to increase sales of beverages in the winter. However, she offered a more modern image of Santa designed by Haddon the current image. This painter is credited with creating the image of a charismatic, recognizable and very popular around the world grandpa. By the way, has nothing to do with its historical prototype of Saint Nicholas.

Not going to throw a stone in the garden of Europeans and Americans. They simply had no choice: they had in their mythology of Santa Claus, who is responsible for snow and cold, and during the new year holidays together with the snow Maiden. Why not open a Christmas tree in Kiev? That’s not the grandfather? Russian spirit smells?

I read one “clinceni” ethnographic society that “naspravdi, s mfolo Did Moroz – TSE is not good ye did, which right th nalwa rosda order. From Nicholas svy honor, I have Demba Bula book ucinku people. VI sobi Prosti Gori Hoch Zolot, but if you don’t deserve, you not bude tsogo. And Did Moroz iz garboski vrouwen CCB spirit LSU. On USSA Wali Yabloko dwellers of zadobiti evil DDA Frost, that sirav parenting, scho came to LSU for HMIS”.

The first time I hear that Santa Claus children ate and the apples were zadabrivaniya. Live and learn…. But seriously, I think we should not go crazy, in a mythological excavation digging and get back to basics.

St. Nicholas to leave his primary role – defender of the righteous and the secret benefactor. And Grandfather frost, Santa Claus and joined them Joulupukki shepherd deer from the cave Kaikoura – to instruct, to amuse the people on the occasion.

The tradition of giving corrugated boxes filled with candy to leave. Not only your children, but also strangers that they are not overwhelmed. Christmas and the arrival of Santa Claus with the performance “the forest raised a Christmas tree” too. It’s so mi-mi-Mishnah. What to reject? But Coca Cola do not like. Neither winter nor summer. Sorry…

Egor Smirnov
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