Night erections usually due to erotic dreams, full bladder or a high concentration of testosterone at this time of day. However, the presence of this phenomenon in boys from birth denies from all these versions. The alternative hypothesis is that the night erection is not a side effect of something, and targeted prevention of hypoxia in the tissues of the penis.
Why penis characteristic of hypoxia, as it is associated with age-related erectile dysfunction and how to save a potency till the old age – read about it in my new article.
Anatomy of the penisthe penis is sometimes jokingly called the muscle and this joke has some truth. This body contains a huge number of smooth muscle cells (SMC), which are the functional basis of the arteries and sinuses of the cavernous (cavernous) bodies. From the tone of MMC depends on the blood filling of the corpora cavernosa, and the abstraction of blood are responsible of the surface (envelope) veins have thin walls without MMC. These veins are located between the elastic cavernous body and a hard shell with a limited tension, which is important to implement a strong erection.
The mechanism of erectionFrom the point of view of biomechanics, the erection of a simple two-step process. In the first stage as a result of relaxation of MMC the lumen of the cavernous arteries and sinuses increases, the pressure of the incoming blood the cavernous body is expanding. The penis when it gets hard, but this is still insufficient for its rectification and rigidity.
The fact is that arriving at the cavernous sinuses, the blood is continuously discharged via a envelopes veins. However, if you maximum relaxation MMC incoming blood expands the corpus cavernosum elastic to such an extent that it begins to push the veins to the hard shell of the penis. In the result of the compression of the veins discharge of blood from the cavernous sinuses is blocked, so arriving through the arteries the blood is trapped. This is the second stage of erection in which the penis reaches its maximum size and rigidity sufficient for sexual intercourse. Thus, erection occurs as a result of generating the blood arteries and the consequent compression of the veins. Ok, with the mechanism of compression of the veins is clear, but how is the tone of GMK arteries?
Regulation of erectionIn the rest of the sympathetic nervous fibers keep MMC in good shape, so the penis limp. An even stronger tone of MMC develop during the cooling of the body surface that are familiar to every man in the form of a significant reduction in the size of the penis, for example when swimming in cold water. There is nothing extraordinary, in a similar way to cold-responsive the whole body – blood is redistributed to the center of the body from skin, mucous membranes and all extremities (fingers, nose, penis) to reduce heat loss and prevent General hypothermia. However, even despite the cold this ancient and important reflex is suppressed more dominant sexual intercourse.
An erection develops on command from the Central nervous system (visualization or fantasy) and as a result of mechanical stimulation of erogenous zones. Both signals overlap at the level of the lower segments of the spinal cord from which parasympathetic nerve fibers that transmit the summed signal to the penis. In the nerve endings of these fibres from the amino acid arginine is synthesized nitric oxide (NO), which penetrates into the smooth muscle fibers of the arteries. Here NO activates the enzyme converts the nucleotide GTP to cGMP, the accumulation of which causes relaxation of MMC cavernous arteries and sinuses and filling them with blood.
After orgasm education NO stops, and turns cGMP back into GTP. The decrease in the concentration of cGMP allows the sympathetic nervous system to dominate again – to restore the tone of MMC and thus reduce blood flow and inhibit erection.
Thus in the period of sexual arousal MMC is relaxed, which makes the erection is a passive process. On the contrary, a relaxed state of the penis, from the point of view of physiology, MMC is an active process occurring with energy consumption and oxygen. This factor plays a role in reducing the strength of the erection with age.
Age erectile dysfunctionMaximum strength of erection occurs in men after puberty and then gradually decreases. Generally by age 40 40% of men face the signs of age-related erectile dysfunction (VED), and an additional 10 years of life increases their share by 10%. Characteristic FEA – insufficient development of the second stage of erection in the presence of the first. That is, sexual arousal consistently causes the swelling of the penis, but have the stiffness is achieved only for a short time or not observed at all. To understand the cause of the problem, analyze the pathogenesis of VED sequentially at different anatomic levels: organ, tissue and cell.
At the organ level is detected, the arriving blood is constantly discharged via a draining vein due to insufficient compression of the lumen from the corpora cavernosa. The fact is that with age, the cavernous body gradually loses its ability to stretch and erections does not reach a size large enough to compress the veins to the outer shell of the penis. Therefore, the increase in blood flow even using drugs doesn’t always fix the problem.
On the tissue level, reducing the elasticity cavernous body is due to fibrosis and increased number of collagen fibers in its tissues. Such changes are characteristic of other tissues and organs in deficiency of blood supply on the background of high oxygen demand (e.g., myocardial infarction). But what about the shortage of blood supply and lack of oxygen may be involved in the penis?
At the cellular level we find that oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) due to the physiology of MMC. I mentioned above that in terms of sexual rest GMK almost around the clock are in good shape, which reduces blood flow and oxygen availability to the surrounding tissue. Moreover, doing the work of the MMC increase their consumption of the already scarce oxygen, causing greater hypoxia in the tissues of the corpus cavernosum. Thus MMC is literally sawing off the branch on which they sit – are dying from hypoxia themselves and bring to the light all gluttonous to oxygen cells. Without timely regeneration niche, MMC and tissues of the corpora cavernosa occupy more and more economical cells and collagen. The abundance of oxygen these fabrics do not need, but to regulate the flow of blood is unable to permanently reduce the elasticity of the corpus cavernosum, which is the basis for the development of foreign trade.
After these lines, clever reader may decide that the prevention of FEA can provide with your hands, porn and Viagra. But it’s not as easy as it seems.
VED therapyIn 1992, pharmaceutical company Pfizer prematurely curtailed clinical trials of the drug, which proved to be ineffective to increase blood flow in the heart muscle in patients with angina pectoris. However, study participants male refused to return the remaining tablets for an attractive side effect – the drug increased the blood flow to another organ of love. Pfizer called “failed” the invention of Viagra, adding the words vigor (strength) and Niagara (falls in America). Since then, the big money and the attention of researchers has moved to issues of therapy and prevention of FEA.
Sildenafil (active ingredient of Viagra) inhibits the reverse reaction of conversion of GTP to cGMP, causing the accumulation of the last and total relaxation of MMC. This allows to implement the second stage of the mechanism of erection, provided that tissue cavernous bodies and elastic enough at least part of the MMC viable.
At first glance, sildenafil does not affect the root cause of VED and improves erection during the treatment. However, studies have shown that regular use of sildenafil increases the amount of MMC in the cavernous body and has a positive effect on the erection even after discontinuation of treatment. Regular use of sildenafil improves blood flow to the penis, allowing access of oxygen and testosterone, and it promotes regeneration of MMC and tissues of the corpus cavernosum.
From these results the conclusion is that the problem can be solved higher sexual activity or regular Masturbation. But somehow, in practice, such preventive “training” an erection does not give long-term results. Possible even a negative effect, because a full erection blocks the blood in the penis, which could aggravate the hypoxia. For example, prolonged erection, continued after orgasm (priapism) can cause tissue necrosis, and in such cases, you should immediately contact a physician for its relief. In addition, deliberately caused by the erection is not always accompanied by high concentrations of testosterone in the blood, which also will not promote regeneration. However, further investigation of this problem has led to the conclusion that the preventive “training” erection is indeed the case, but happens at night when regenerative processes are accelerated.
The role of nocturnal erection in the prevention of VEDonce night erections believed to be the result of erotic dreams, but then was installed the spontaneous nature of the phenomenon – an erection often occurs without the appropriate subjects of dreams and sometimes outside of REM sleep. Later began to consider that the night erection is a side effect of increasing testosterone synthesis, circadian rhythm of concentration which has a maximum at 3-6 hours of the night.
However, night erection is found in boys from birth, when testosterone concentration is minimal. In addition, a similar phenomenon occurs in women in the vagina, in which the adrenal glands synthesize only a small amount of testosterone and no apparent jump in concentration at night. Thus, it was concluded that nocturnal erections is not caused by an increase in the concentration of testosterone, but the coincidence of these events in time is not random.
It is known that fluctuations in testosterone concentrations occur as a result of suppression of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone melatonin, the secretion of which increases in the late evening and reaches its maximum after falling asleep. After this restart the gonads is a strong jump in concentrations of testosterone during the night. At the same time, observed nocturnal erections, which is initiated in another zone of the hypothalamus (LPOA), not involved in the regulation of normal erection and sexual function in General. Consequently, nocturnal erections, deliberate process, not a side effect of other phenomena. In addition, episodes of nocturnal erections coincide with REM sleep, when breathing. Given the night reduce the oxygen consumption of muscle and brain, shortness of breath more oxygen flow in the blood.
So. During sleep in different parts of the CNS run a couple signals: one initiates the synthesis of testosterone, the second night an erection and in REM sleep breathing and blood oxygenation. As the night an erection occurs only before the first stage, blood is not stagnant, but constantly brings new portions of testosterone and oxygen, providing anabolic processes and oxygenation. Thus the loss of MMC and other cells of the cavernous body during the day kompensiruet regenerative processes in the night due to nocturnal erections.
Describes the pathogenesis of VED and the mechanism, he opposed can be considered as an example of the process of aging and renewal characteristic of the organism as a whole. Interestingly, the Taoist practice of youth extension and life based on relief of nocturnal erections with the help of deep breathing. I guess that deep breath allowed Taoists to reduce the concentration of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide, which increases the tone of the MMC in the genitals, the blood which at this time is saturated with testosterone. As a result of increased tone of the arteries of the pelvis testosterone is not time to be captured by the cells of the genital organs through the General circulation is dissipated throughout the body, providing anabolic and regenerative processes in all tissues, not just in the penis. More about these practices I will tell you sometime in the future, and now limit myself to more simple guidelines.
Recommendations for the prevention of VEDthe Positive effect of sildenafil on regenerative processes can be explained by the fact that the drug increases the frequency of spontaneous night erections. However, I do not recommend for this purpose is constantly to take Viagra which is also the high cost has a very high incidence of side effects. Instead, here are a few of the studies that can substantiate a number of simple guidelines for the prevention of VED without medication.
Proven to influence the quality and duration of sleep at night level of testosterone. For example, reducing the duration of sleep to 5 hours is sufficient to reduce the maximum amplitude of the nocturnal testosterone concentrations by 15%. Therefore, a deep and prolonged sleep will help to keep high the concentration of testosterone in the period of occurrence of nocturnal erections, which will improve its preventative impact in terms of foreign trade.
In another study it was shown that the decrease of oxygen concentration in the inhaled air reduces the frequency, duration and strength of nocturnal erections in healthy men. In this regard, it is recommended to provide constant fresh air during sleep.
Chronic hypoxia is also characteristic in patients with COPD, diabetes, hypertension, apnea during sleep, atherosclerosis, impaired breathing through the nose and Smoking, which leads to disruption of nocturnal erections and erectile dysfunction. Therefore, for the prevention of this complication and hypoxia in General, it is necessary to monitor the underlying disease.
High physical activity positively affects the vascular system, respiratory function and testosterone levels. According to the results of the meta-analysis both aerobic and anaerobic physical activity lasting more than 160 minutes per week after 6 months has a positive effect on erectile function.
Unfortunately, in the case of irreversible fibrosis of the cavernous body, even drugs are not able to extend it to blocking of outflow of blood through the veins. In this case, preventive measures are unlikely to give a noticeable result. However, there are a couple of ways of partial blocking of blood flow through the deliberate compression of the venous plexus at the root level of the penis. Familiar to all men the first way is to stress the muscles of the perineum, through which pass the discharge of blood veins. In research regular training of these muscles contributed to the restoration of erection. The second way it works “here and now” and involves the compression of the venous plexus from the outside. To do this, you can sit crotch on your own heel when the foot is upright, with emphasis on the toe. A few seconds will be enough to achieve the strength of erection sufficient for penetration. If you have enough imagination and flexibility, you’ll probably be able to come up with poses for intercourse with the constant pressure of the heel on the perineum, but don’t overdo it – a large mass to crush the last hope important muscle!
On this topic of erection is exhausted and the next time I will talk about the mechanism of ejaculation and how to increase the duration of sexual intercourse. Not to miss – sign up on LiveJournal, Facebook, Vkontakte, Telegram.
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