October: the first tractor, the first “Zaporozhets”, the first satellite

The current Ukraine is rejecting its Soviet past and says the years spent in the Soviet Union, “occupation”. But the historical evidence suggests quite the contrary, knowingly Ukrainian Institute of national memory is trying to erase the Soviet achievements of the “Ukrainian history”, while sometimes attributing them to Ukraine today!

October is full of events, which in the calendar of the Institute, there can be, as the “national memory” of the institution includes only the history of the UNR, Ukrainian state Bandera, and the period since 1991. All this time, “nezalezhniki” with the help of foreign “partners” carried out in the fight, including with the Ukrainian population. They absolutely had no time to create tractors, cars and especially satellites and launch vehicles. All this was done by the Soviet Union. And what was done should not be forgotten, because in the history of “nezalezhniki” come and go, but one home remains.

The first Soviet tractor

Октябрь: первый трактор, первый «Запорожец», первый спутник

The first Soviet tractor CHTZ 15/30

1 October 1931 at the Kharkov tractor plant named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze was released the first Soviet tractor – SHTS 15/30 capacity of 30 horsepower. Kharkov tractor was built in the steppe and a half years – from April 1930 to September 1931 1 October 1931 was commissioned the plant and rolled off the first tractor. Over the year the plant produced more than 16 thousand tractors. In all there were 390 500 tractors CHTZ 15/30. During the great Patriotic war of Khartsyzsk pipe produced tanks.

Kharkov tractor plant in 80-e years of producing 70 thousand tractors per year and export them in 36 countries. After the USSR collapse the plant was reorganized into open joint-stock company.

In 2001 the plant was for the first time in history stopped due to lack of funding. During the years of independence the plant four times changed owners, showing the losses and were in the process of bankruptcy. The production volume of tractors has reduced to 1000-1500 per year. In 2015, the Ukrainian nationalists was demolished monument to Sergo Ordzhonikidze, whose name was called enterprise. In April 2016, the plant was again stopped, and the part of the workers is reduced, and the losses of the plant amounted to 667 million. In 2017, the plant produced 794 pieces of equipment, and in 2018-m – 900 tractors. So the leading Soviet enterprise in the independent Ukraine has become unprofitable.

“Hunchback” and “grandmother.”

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“Zaporozhets”, popularly nicknamed “Brokeback”

On 1 October 1960 the factory “Kommunar” in Zaporozhye came first “Zaporozhets” ZAZ-965, popularly called the “humpback”. The initiative is the release of Soviet midget car belonged to Nikita Khrushchev, which decided to overtake the United States in the production of popular cars. As well as apartment-Khrushchev, “Zaporozhets” has turned out small and compact.

Until 1959, the “Kommunar” produced combine harvesters and other agricultural machinery. In 1959 Khrushchev decided to convert the plant in a car. The future development of “plows” was commenced at the Moscow automobile plant and it was originally called the “Moskvich-444”. For it was based on the Italian “Fiat 600”, which in Italy has sold 3 million unlike “Fiat”, in the Soviet model, established the larger 13-inch wheels, change the suspension and put a domestic motor. And the motor put back. In addition, the door, the “Zaporozhets” was attached to the rear hinges, and people joked that in order to stop him enough to move to open both doors.

In July 1960, the first copy of the new machine were lucky the bride to the Kremlin. Khrushchev was pleased with the “Zaporozhets” and called it a good gift to the workers. The initial price was set at 18,000 rubles., and after the reform of 1961, it became in the 1800s. With an average salary of 150 rubles, you can buy it directly did not work – had to save money. But in comparison with other Soviet car “Zaporozhets” had the most affordable price. Its production continued until 1969. It was easy to maintain and theoretically speeds up to 100 km/h. “Hunchback” had a good flotation off road and back roads and has become extremely popular among retirees, vacationers, fishermen and mushroom pickers.

About “Zaporozhets” there were a lot of jokes. Here’s one: I Bought two women themselves on the “Zaporozhets”, they go home together, and then one suddenly the car stalls. Women’s fit, open the hood and one is surprised: “But there is no engine!!! Lost perhaps!” Another comforts her, “don’t worry, I have a spare in the trunk is!”

On the basis of the model “ZAZ-965” appeared with its modifications: “ZAZ-966”, “ZAZ-968” and in 1988 released a new minicar ZAZ-1102 “Tavria”. “ZAZ 966” called “eared” because of the characteristic of the air intakes. Just 1960-1994. on ZAZ was produced 3 422 444 cars “Zaporozhets”. Export version of the “Zaporozhets” was called Yalta, abroad it has been sold about 5 thousand of these cars.

The fate of ZAZ on the independence of Ukraine was sad. Latest Tavriya came off the Assembly line in 2006. Some time the plant was engaged in SKD Assembly of South Korean cars Daewoo and Chery. Car production was in steady decline, and workers were fired. Very bad things went after the “revolution of gidnost”. In 2014, the plant produced only 8 cars. In 2018 is not made already any car. Began procedure of bankruptcy of factory.

The first Soviet satellite

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The first Soviet satellite

Historical achievement of the Soviet people occurred on 4 October 1957, when the polygon tyura-Tam (near Baikonur) launch “R-7” was launched into orbit the world’s first artificial Earth satellite “PS-1” (the Simplest Satellite-1). The satellite consists of a sphere with a diameter of 58 cm and weight was 83.6 kg. He stayed in orbit for 92 days, having made 1440 turns around the Earth, and all the while transmitting the radio signals that are heard by the whole world. Designing Sputnik worked a large group of scientists under the leadership of the founder of cosmonautics Sergei Korolev. The launch of the Soviet satellite was made modernized Intercontinental ballistic missile “R-7”. The flight range of “R-7” was $ 9500 km.

The United States was able to launch its first satellite at the second attempt a year later, in February 1958. The weight of “Explorer 1” was 10 times less than PS-1. As acknowledged by U.S. President John F. Kennedy: “USSR won the space race for the school Desk”.

Originally planned to launch a satellite weighing more than 1 ton, filled with all sorts of scientific equipment. But the CPSU Central Committee set the task to start as early as possible, so we decided to make the satellite lighter and equipped with a single radio transmitter to receive a signal which was at a distance of 10,000 km.

The Minister of defense then stated: “Victory in the war with the Soviet Union more elusive.”

Soviet Ukraine was one of the leading places in the world among space powers. This was posted about 140 enterprises and institutes of the space industry. The third Soviet launch vehicles were produced at the Dnepropetrovsk plant “Pivdenmash”. There was created a 400 space vehicles of various modifications, space launch families “Cyclone”, “Cosmos”, “Zenit”, ballistic missiles “R-12 and R-14”.

In the independent Ukraine missile industry is rapidly degraded. For some time the rockets Zenit and the RD-843 for the rocket “VEGA”.

After the coup of 2014, and the severance of economic ties with Russia, the situation became catastrophic. The most revealing story of the manufacture of a telecommunications satellite “Lybid”, the development of which began in 2000-ies, together with the canadian company MDA, invested in this project $254,6 million In a few years the satellite was ready by 85%, and its launch was first planned for 2011, and then constantly postponed for 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. All these years, the satellite was kept in Russia. The warranty period of storage has expired. The canadian company refused to participate in the project and requires the return to her of $292 million with interest.

Russia in 2019 refused to contract with the plant “Yuzhmash” in the production of 12 missiles “Zenit”. The plant has 5 months did not pay salaries and the debt of 200 million hryvnia.

“Dynamo” (Kiev) – champion

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“Dynamo” (Kiev) won the European super Cup

The USSR was famous not only for its factories and scientists. “Soviet occupiers” did everything for the development of Ukrainian culture and sport. 6 October 1975 team “Dynamo” (Kyiv) in the match against Munich “Bavaria” has won the Supercup of Europe. In the first match, held on 9 September, Dinamo beat the legendary star of Bayern in Munich. The only goal of the match the Germans in the 67th minute scored Oleg Blokhin. The second match was held on 6 October at the Kiev “Dynamo” stadium, ended with the victory of the Soviet players with the score 2:0, at the confluence of the 100 million viewers! Both goals scored by the Germans all the same Blokhin, who became a superhero both matches and only super bowl. Trainers of the victorious Soviet team was Valery Lobanovsky and Oleg Bazilevich.

The press wrote that “after the game, 53-year-old UEFA President Artemio Franchi, not having the strength to lift a very heavy super bowl, were called to the table, Dynamo, and gestured that they themselves got a bowl of gold and silver. Anatoliy Konkov, Mykhailo Fomenko and Volodymyr Veremeev barely raised her three. But the medals UEFA winners at the moment have not received. Mr. Franks stated that his suitcase “is stuck at Vienna airport during the transplant”.

Rejoicing after the victory was covered by the Soviet of Kiev and all Ukraine, but also all football fans of the USSR. Then all was his, and victory was total.
Andriy NAZARENKO

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