The position of devil’s advocate was not invented by the Europeans and the Slavs.
There is a saying — “the devil’s advocate”. Many people mistakenly believe that its goal was to protect Satan during the trial. Say, judged unclean in the middle Ages by all the rules. The prosecution. The party of protection. The jury. The Prosecutor accuses. The lawyer argues in favor of the accused.
But anybody in a head would not even come to drag a fallen angel in some Paris or Nuremberg, the court of the XV century. Satan was no jurisdiction, as God is. He is part of the medieval view of the world — the beginning of Evil. How can you judge him, if without him, as they say, no? The judge could have subjected to his bad influence, heretic, adulterer, sodomite. But not of Beelzebub himself.
And yet the devil’s advocate really existed and were paid for their services justice. He came into the case only when it was necessary to determine: the righteous man or just pretending? It would be better to call him “lawyer of the devil.” To make it clearer.
Already in those days the West was characteristic of legal thinking. We saints were determined by eye. Feel people that some of the hermit comes the extraordinary grace extend to his people, and went to the information “upstairs” to the Patriarch. And there, after the death of the righteous, and usually proclaimed him a Saint, especially not explaining to the congregation the details of the procedure of canonization.
In Europe, to become Holy, was required to go through the boring procedure of the present trial. Also, of course, after the departure to the other world. After all, who needs the living saints? He is Holy, and who are you? It is insulting! Hence the expression: “are You a Saint?”, exchanged often quarreled women.
The position of devil’s advocate introduced in 1587 by Pope Sixtus V. That he, basically, and went down in history. Although he was an extraordinary person — the first Slav, who became head of the Catholic Church. Long before the well-known pole, John Paul II. But more on that later. And the defender, speaking on behalf of the Prince of Darkness.
The function of devil’s advocate was to collect all the arguments AGAINST the canonization of the candidate saints. Maybe late secretly drank? Or ran around the boys? Was bestiality? Or, conversely, excessively leaned on gratification not to God but to the fairer sex? Unless you can skip the congregation OFFICIALLY called righteous random person? And even criminal!
But such cases before the introduction of the post of “devil’s advocate” frequently! That allowed critics of the Church to openly mock its regulations. For example, a well known expert on the mysteries of the “saints” Leo Taksyly wrote in the book “Sacred den”, published in Paris in 1879 and caused a lot of noise: “St. Athanasius — Bishop of Alexandria, had committed many murders. The Cathedral of Antioch excommunicated him from the Church. Holy man did not panic and succumb to the anathema of all the bishops who opposed him. Saint Liberius — the thirty-eighth Pope twice excommunicated Athanasius from the Church. But that did not stop to proclaim the Holy Athanasius. Understand themselves in these matters — I am not able”.
Imagine if you were the Pope. A deceased candidate, the saints were your friend. And you are his old friend made a Saint. Here to avoid this sensitive issue of voluntarism, a candidate for the saints until recently in the Catholic Church and was tried posthumously! That, in my opinion, eminently correct. And then ponalezut in the calendar who or whatever is handy, and you then hit them with the bow — head will not be enough.
Abolished the position of devil’s advocate quite recently, in 1983, only the famous Pope John Paul II. Same — ol, which is in front of everyone and apologized for past sins of the Catholic Church.
THE SON OF SRECKO PERIC. But since we’re talking about the Pope, that the position of devil’s advocate was reduced, let us tell a few words about who entered it. Sixtus V was not related to the construction of the Sistine chapel, which is painted by Raphael. Did his predecessor at number four. But he had a long and paradoxical way to the top of the Church hierarchy. He made an excellent career, as we would say.
Ancestors of Sixtus V were Orthodox. They came from Montenegro. Dad his name was Srecko Peric — a typical Montenegrin and Serbian surname. He belonged, according to one version, the genus of Serica, and the other of Svilanovich, and had a great hunt to change places and small Commerce. There was even talk that the old man, Srecko did not disdain the dark deeds like smuggling and taking valuables from unwary citizens by unlawful means. In any case, was this man an enterprising and absolutely devoid of complexes, since paternal Orthodoxy, without batting an eye, changed to Catholicism to run away from home, where he knew very well. From the town of Bijela (White in our opinion) on the Northern shore of the Adriatic sea, Srecko moved to his shore South to the Italian town of Ancona, and announced that he is now not srechko Peric, and Felice Peretti! Elegant, right? Not every Srecko so you can.
This Srecko turned to Felice, in 1521, was born a son whom he named exactly the same as yourself. The future Pope remembered his Slavonic origin, he loved his countrymen, and even rebuilt them a Church. Jerome in Rome, which he loved to visit the Catholics, saying, “in Illyrian” — that is, in the language which we usually called Serbo-Croatian.
Little Felice Sreckovic has come a long way from the son of the father with a dark past to the Inquisitor of Venice and of the General of the Franciscan order. It is characterized by vigor, eloquence, and appearance of the goon. The best candidate for the highest post of the Church was not to find. Especially in the vicinity of Rome hunted the whole gang of robbers, which was no pass no pass. After becoming Pope, Sixtus V immediately dealt with them — caught the fans of easy money have their heads cut off and decorated them the way to the residence of the high priest — the castle of St. Angel. And as the new Pope knew well the seamy side of life by the example his own father and the investigative experience of the Inquisitor, he came to the head and thought to clear the ranks of saints from all sorts of crooks — it is for this he introduced the post of devil’s advocate. Don’t know about you, but this person is cute — clear, pragmatic, not prone to delude ourselves with the reality and knowing that all need strict supervision!
Mystic Ukraine. Here, where the borders of the worlds, man and God, and hell feels particularly acute.
In Nikolai Gogol’s novel “Viy”: “Lost for anything Homa. I know why he lost: because he was afraid. And if you weren’t afraid…”
THE NAZI GOLD. However, the Orthodoxy in the Balkans, the Pope caused a significant blow — it was founded in 1589, the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome in Rome, many contributed to the strengthening of Catholicism among the Slavs. Incidentally, the origin of the founder of the institution and penchant for risky operations of his father’s impact on the traditions of this institution — traditionally there was to learn people risk-averse and somewhat ambiguous enterprise. Even relatively recently, in 1999, the Croatian College of St. Jerome turned out to be along with the Vatican Bank defendant in the case of the so-called “Nazi gold”, taken by the ustasha (Croatian fascists) from Yugoslavia during the Second world war.
So, ironically, seems to be a typical Western, deeply European the position of devil’s advocate came up with… a Slav. And, unlike many tales, historical fact which, as they say, no arguing. Smart people are Slavs. No more stupid than other peoples. Also well-versed in evil spirits.
It is a pity, incidentally, that John Paul II abolished the invention Sixtus the Fifth! Now the saints in the West, as I understand it, to make it easier. Again open opportunities for otherworldly corruption. Climb into saints again every bastard. Others, on the contrary, willing his soul to the devil to lay from the kind of life that we have under the control of the Prince of This World, where the strong tramples the weak, and a lie passes for truth.
Think about it, to what state you need to bring someone to the night went to the old mill where, according to legends, live the hell wrote them a note with their blood, wrapped in a stone and thrown into the maelstrom of sworn that he gave his soul to the devil in exchange for deliverance from life’s problems?
It is generally believed that selling his soul to the devil is a purely European trading. Because there, in Europe, long before we learned what money is and how they can be done from the air. And even from soul. After all, what is soul COUPLES!
However, in the old days traded with the devil and souls in Ukraine. And still haggling. The people of Kiev know the famous “gate of Zaborovsky” in the wall of St. Sophia Cathedral. It is named after Kiev XVIII century Archbishop Raphael Zaborovsky. Any art historian will tell you, what a great example of Ukrainian Baroque. Well, Baroque is, in my opinion, so-so — some kind of rural… But no one wants to tell me what was Bishop Raphael professional hunter evil spirits. At the function he was supposed…
In 1743, Kiev Archbishop Raphael Zaborovsky considered the case of Elijah Choppily, “inscribed with his blood the Prince of demons and all demons in the service of soul and body on trideset years.”
Case Choppily inscribed the line “in hiring”, began in Lubny regimental court. Came to the Archbishop. He reported about it to the Empress herself the reign of Elizabeth. And she decided Compile from Lubny court to deliver in Kiev to Bishop Rafail “under a strong guard for testing, research and ociania, according to the Rules of the Holy Fathers and Her Imperial Majesty’s edicts.” However, what the outcome of the investigation is unknown.
It is a pity that the end of this criminal case ate the mouse, and we don’t know how to punish the “dusheprodavtsem” Compile. But notice one characteristic detail. Compila’t just sold his soul to the devil with all and LEASE IT FOR 30 YEARS.
Unlikely our hero was more than thirty. Therefore, he hoped to live yet the same, that is, as they say, the best years, getting all the worldly benefits at the expense of Satan. And then, when they come to old age, sickness, and all the mundane and meat in lent will lose interest, Compile was going to take the soul out of the rent back. To repent and go to heaven. That is, he was going to shoot the Devil himself. How is Ukrainian!
Cheat the devil and God. In short, as a result of all these trading operations Compile was going after the Devil to deceive even God, he itaru finally bitten the devil his soul. Imagine what it was for the soul? What is the philosophical free-thinking breadth it contained?
You ever wonder, dear reader, why Ukraine gave Russian literature and world of the two most mystical writers Gogol and Bulgakov? Detectives thousands of stamps in Moscow. She is famous for producing ladies ‘ novels and science fiction. And mystery is to us, to Ukraine! Here, where the borders of Western and Eastern worlds, man and God, and hell feels particularly acute. And Shaytan is with the Muslim South pulls. So we have incredibly strong the righteous and the sinner descends to such depths that even the Pope Sixtus the Fifth did not dream. No wonder they say: if Moscow cut the nails, in Kiev cut fingers.
In any case, to lose faith in yourself is not worth it. Even in today’s tough times. Of course, all witches, Gogol ladies strive to pass on top of you… And feel that kind of Khoma Brutus, which rises the Wii. But when it gets scary, and the demons will surround you, remember the optimistic phrase which ends with “Vij”: “darling man Homa! And gone for nothing. I know why he lost: because he was afraid. And if you weren’t afraid…” Helps, as the Holy Scriptures. Because clearly by God’s inspiration wrote these Gogol’s texts. It without devil’s advocate is clear.Oles Buzinand