© memory-book.ua/Альбом “Photos Ustinova A.V. 1941-1945”For the operation to destroy the bridges near the town on 6 December 1942 the commander of the partisan unit, the Sidor Kovpak was awarded the title of major-General, and subsequently this feat was praised in such a way that the responsibility for the operation was left for his guerrillas. However, the war in the rear of the enemy was part of a much larger plan.The supremacy of the shell just because of his strength was the only remaining after the defeat of the occupants the partisan and underground movement in Ukraine and first emerged from the forests of Bryansk. And at the end of 1942, perhaps the most effective. But not the only one.
In the wide gap, connecting the rear of the red army guerrilla territory and known as “the Vitebsk gate”, focused on multiple connections, including Alexander Saburov, Alexei Fedorov, Yakov Miller.In front of all of them commander-in-chief of the partisan movement, Marshal Voroshilov was set a common goal — to move to the West. More precisely, the task was in General marked on 31 August 1942 in the course of the meeting the employees of the Central staff of the partisan movement with the commanders of the partisan detachments of the Bryansk front — created in may, Ukrainian broadband still did not have the space to work.
The groups Kovpaka in a huge RAID was released simultaneously with the combined forces of Saburov, who on October 31 was ordered to keep contact with “comrade Koval” (such was the nickname of the shell) and see what he is doing. And after crossing to the right Bank of the Dnieper to the basin of the Pripyat busy he was, as it turned out, the solution to global problems.
“The fate of the guerrilla territory, which was destined to play a major role in the development of the guerrilla movement of the right-Bank Ukraine. Solved the problem, but have not yet been solved. All these twisted, wetlands, comprising several administrative districts — Lelchitsy, rakityanskiy, Slovechansko, Stolin district, on the territory of the equal good of the region were United by the German authorities in one district, or in their language gebit.
Head district — gebietskommissar — chose the residence district of the town of Lelchitsy and stayed there under guard major commandant of the gendarmerie and the police battalion. As long as we don’t trash gebitskomissariat, there can be no question of creating a partisan edge. Forests were necessary to us only as a base from which to make dashing raids of the guerrillas. Then we never thought that the Lelchitsy we decided the fate of the Carpathian RAID of Kovpak, the fate of a number of large partisan units, emerged through a year in the Zhytomyr, Rivne, Kamianets-Podilskyi Ukraine.
If the Germans remained in Lelchitsy or Slovechna, I would have been there, made them their strongholds, could there not partisan edge, and hence the base of the guerrillas,” wrote about those events, the Deputy commander for intelligence kovpakivskiy connections Pyotr Vershigora (by the way, one of the few who wrote memoirs do myself).In fact, Sarna sought by the guerrillas to the North and South of the Pripyat river, was one of the key points of huge, deserted space, having passed through the main roads to detour forests and wetlands. They appeared to stop at the intersection of Railways Rivne-Luninets and the Kovel-Korosten, during the First world war turned into a strategic point, which housed military units, hospitals, warehouses with ammunition. In this sense, the role of Saren not much has changed, as did their goal of war in the rear of the enemy.
But there still needs to be reached.
On the night of November 27 for a good sleigh road rested kovpakivtsi moved in the direction of Lelchitsy, having a plan to complete the encirclement and destruction of the enemy. Commissioner Semyon Rudnev jokingly told the commanders: “hold, lads! Be aware that the Lelchitsy — our guerrilla “Cannes”!” Cannes has had to take with the use of field artillery from a two-story house that housed the regional police authority, the enemy had chased a 76-mm cannon. And the prison was turned into a real strong point, covered firing point, which the Germans put the pedestal of the monument to Lenin. Sent reinforcements, the guerrillas repulsed by end of day November 27, completely controlled the district center.
“Interesting fight because I in practice felt that they can do the will of the commander when the attack bogged down. And again, lucky — twice the death went elbow to elbow with me and passed. The first time of the anti-tank gun armor-piercing projectile off the head of the gunner standing by for the second time, the bullet, the small bullet will hit the nose of a neighbor, flying past my ear”, with a meticulous researcher described his emotions Vershigora.
On the other side of Pripyat guerrillas Saburov took Slovechno near Ovruch, expanding the southern part of the guerrilla territory and having the task to equip in their area for receiving aircraft from the Central headquarters of the partisan movement.At the same time, the troops of the Stalingrad and don fronts, waging fierce battles with the environment November 23, troops of the Stalingrad grouping of the Germans, continued to compress the steel jaws. Also on 10 November, was halted a General offensive stretched for a great distance the German troops, who went to the defense of the entire southern wing of the Soviet-German front.
The German command believed that the Red army exhausted, on a major offensive is not capable, which means you have to sit out the winter in the fortified borders, and in the spring of 1943 again to go on the offensive.
Thus, the actions of the guerrillas, in particular, Ukraine did not expect assistance to Stalingrad, as many like to claim.
24 November Hitler ordered Paulus to deal with their problems on their own. They had to make significant adjustments to German plans to overwinter and dig power.
“The map lying on the table Rudneva, was a little spider with four black paws Railways and the blue tendrils of the rivers, and on the side the inscription: “Sarny”. A few evenings spent we Rudnev, Kovpak, Basima, Voitsekhovich and I’m thinking of how to crush us, “the spider”. Repeat salciccia “guerrilla Cannes”, as jokingly called Rudnev that fight, it was impossible. The city had a much larger garrison, the approaches to it were not in favor of the attackers, and in addition, to the city led many communications, here was the biggest danger. But this attracted us most of all.
© aloban75.livejournal.com. The commander of the 1st Ukrainian partisan division Sidor artemyevitch Kovpak (second from left) at the meeting with the staff. Fourth from left — Commissioner of the 1st Ukrainian partisan division, major-General Simon V. RudnevAnd intelligence reported that “spider” a spider is living a greedy life. Black tentacles roads are frantically being driven to the front of ammunition and troops. In the opposite direction — to the West — is the stolen bread, high quality aviation forest. And yet — what a pain echoed in our hearts on rails sealed wheel cars driven in Germany driven from all slaves Ukraine, our Soviet people,”— writes Vershigora, whose primary task in the preparation phase was human intelligence, because all the roads were carefully patrolled by the enemy.Inspired by the success in Lelchitsy, the commanders considered the option of storming Saren, but the Slovak-defector given a scout Anka-the grog wench, said that the city had just arrived four trainload of German soldiers and equipment, which strengthened the Slovak garrison and organized the barriers on all roads.
Given the circumstances, and most importantly, a terrible shortage of ammunition and shells to the gun, Kovpaka Rudnev, Vershigora, chief of staff Gregory Basima, commander razvedroty Ivan Berezhnoy, the battalion commander Peter Kullback, paracstamol Basil Voitsekhovich named Kutuzov decided not to storm the station, and to simultaneously blow up five bridges around it and paralyze the work of the railway junction.
“Tho and Buda — Sanski cross,” he stood up from the table, shaking like after a difficult struggle, Kovpak.
In the night from 4th to 5th December all of the subversive group was ready to strike.
Kovpak he kept a squadron of horse, in the event of failure of one of the units to send help, but a radio for operational communication had only one group — the senior Lieutenant Andrey Cymbal, which had to walk 150 kilometers to the undermining of the very large and long bridge over the Horyn at the village of Antonovka. And to all enough explosives, which also had a deficit, the guerrillas dug anti-tank mines in the area, asking local show, where there are still minefields in the fighting in 1941, getting a “premium” bacon and bread for clearing the fields before plowing.
Everything went perfectly, only band Cymbal, by the way, to end the war with the Golden star of the Hero, clashed, escaped with several wounded. Movement through Sarny unit is completely stopped for two weeks, and was completely restored only a month and a half.All the way back kovpakovtsy dismissed from prosecution, giving two major battle 16-20 December Glushkevichi and 21 December in Bahce. But it was not the main answer “Sumskomu the cross.”
Having already in 1943 in the Carpathian RAID, kovpakovtsy met with a new force, which operated in the same environment as them. According to Vershigory, realizing the scale of the problem, the Germans began a demonstration “fire” of Ukrainian nationalists in the service in different instances, casually giving them complete freedom of action, while simultaneously inciting against the Polish population.
By 1944, the concentration of different kinds of armed people in the forests of Western Ukraine was such that the Ukrainian partisan units, marching ahead of the red army, were forced to be in constant tension, which did not end with the war.
Although this is another story that one can hardly tell with such pride, how about “Sharnsky cross”, immortalized in books and the second film of the trilogy “the Duma on Kovpak” Alexander Dovzhenko. Dmitry Zaborin