Problems in infancy can affect the ability to arbitrarily control at least until Junior high.
Researchers from the University of Warwick, the University of Tennessee, Southampton University and king’s College London found that children born prematurely (before 32 weeks gestation) or with very low birth weight (under 1500 grams) have experienced difficulty in an arbitrary control, similar to those which occur in deprived families of children.
Voluntary control — the property of the human temperament. The term refers to the ability to self-regulation of emotional reactions and behavior as “inclusion”, and to the inhibition of actions and reactions. The inability to adequately control prevents the child normally learn, to socialize, and in the future to work and live fully.
Children’s issues related to the deprivation of family relations (thrown from dysfunctional families, are placed at an early age in children’s homes or similar institutions), are well known. Many works describe the impact of such deprivation on the development of various personality and cognitive functions. It is also known that premature and underweight children are at risk for various psychological problems, therefore, the work published in the journal Development and Psychopathology, may help determine the mechanisms of loss of self-control are included in these children.
The researchers compared four groups of children. For this purpose they used data of two studies, the Bavarian longitudinal study and Romanian-English study of children-orphans. The first group consisted of children born severely premature or with very low weight. The second children left for at least six months without care loving and caring guardians. In the third — 311 normal children born at due time and with an average body weight, and the fourth 52 orphans, which was immediately adopted.
It turned out, the first two groups had about the same problem with an arbitrary control, differing from the third and fourth. These differences were present in children, even when they were six years old.
The authors note that problems with self-control are pronounced and long lasting in nature and can leave their mark on the whole future life of these people. They suggest that early correction, aimed at improving the skills arbitrary control can be important for deprivileging, and premature low-weight babies. The sooner parents or guardians will pay attention to this aspect of their life, the better the effect. Scientists say that further work needs to establish what changes occur in these children at the neurophysiological level. This may help more fully to find out the biological mechanism underlying the violations of arbitrary control, and assist in the correction.
In an earlier study, researchers from Ohio state University found that children notice more than adults, and a global survey conducted by British scientists showed that children stop believing in Santa Claus.