“Rat trails” – such an apt name for the US intelligence services gave the routes that thousands of Nazis and fascists managed to escape to South America. Helped the fugitives of the Vatican, in the person of influential bishops and monks of the Franciscan order. Argentina took up to 15 thousand people. In Brazil settled about 1,5 thousand of Nazis in Chile 500 people. Many found refuge in Paraguay and Uruguay, and to the middle East from the Third Reich transported 200 fugitives.
Catholic Europe on the eve of the conflict
By the beginning of the Second world war, the countries which are the pillars of the papacy in Europe was allied or loyal to Nazi Germany. In Italy the rule of the fascist party headed by Mussolini, Spain was ruled by General Franco. Portugal was set to “new state” led by General Antonio Carmona. In Germany 30% of the population were Catholics, and the Church was in people’s lives an important place.
Yes, and its existence as a state the Vatican is obligated to the Nazi regime. In 1929, cardinal Pietro Gaspari and Prime Minister of Italy Benito Mussolini signed the Lateran concordat, and the fascist Parliament supported him. According to the agreement recognized Catholicism as the state religion of Italy, the Vatican declared a separate state with its own territory, radio and the ability to conduct its own foreign policy.
The Alliance between Hitler and the Vatican
Nazi Germany built a new model of society. For the people were formed by the images of Nordic heroes of the past, which is not inherent in the Christian softness and forgiveness. However, in the South of Germany and especially in the homeland of the Nazi party in Bavaria was dominated by Catholicism, and Hitler found a way out of the situation that raised its prestige in the international arena and within the country.
20 Jun 1933 signed a concordat between Pope Pius XI and Nazi Germany. Under the agreement, the Catholic party of Germany to stop the political activity and the rights of the Church in education, marriage and service of the priests increasing.
In the war the Vatican maintained neutrality. After the victory of the allies, the Holy see accused of loyalty to the loser regimes, although the Vatican has expressed its concern about the Holocaust. Pius XII tried to help Jews, but still the nickname “the German Pope” is firmly entrenched behind him.
“The German Pope” Pius XII
Charges the Vatican has responded that the intervention and criticism is established in Europe only exacerbated the situation, the main danger in their view was not Nazism but communism rejects any religion. Let us assume that. But how to explain the participation of the highest dignitaries of the Vatican in saving not just the soldiers of the losing side, and war criminals?
The trail of Bishop Aloysius Hudal
In Rome’s Piazza Navona is the Church of the virgin Mary, which housed the College for German-speaking priests. The rector of the institution was the Bishop Alois Hudal, Austrian by nationality, and admirer of Hitler. Before the collapse of the Nazis Judal called himself a “Builder of bridges”.
The priest looked for ways of reconciliation and Union between the new European order and Catholicism. In 1937 Hudal supported the racist laws of the Third Reich, and in his work “the religious Future of Europe” argued that salvation of the Old world lies in the symbiosis of Nazism and Catholicism:”the New Alliance will destroy liberalism and communism, stemming from Jewish inspiration.”
Historians Robert Graham and David Alvarez studied the activities of Alois Hudal and came to the conclusion that the monk was recruited by German intelligence for information and influence on the Vatican. There are documented remittances that were sent in 1938 from the Ministry of foreign Affairs of Germany in the name Kudala. In 1944, the Bishop was appointed curator of the German-speaking people on the territory of Vatican and Italy.
Bishop Alois Hudal
Its purpose Hudal used for rescue of high-ranking Nazis. For the priest the surrender of Germany meant the collapse of the West, and in his posthumous memoirs, he wrote:
“After 1945, all of my charity work was designed to help former members of the national socialist and the fascist party, especially for the so-called war criminals… Thanks to false documents many of them I saved.”
As he worked the scheme of the Bishop Hudal
After the fugitive has been found in Italy, he was associated with the Bishop. A fake name was made out of paper, issued by the Vatican organization for aid to refugees. The received document easily “refugee” received a passport of the displaced persons from the International Committee of the red cross (ICRC), with whom it was easy to get the travel documents.
To escape to Argentina in the passport of the red cross has raised tourist visa (certificate of health and a return ticket was not needed). For the reception of a fugitive in Buenos Aires, said cardinal Antonio Caggiano, under the patronage of President Juan Peron. The leadership of the South American countries hoped to use the experience and finances of the European fugitives for their own development.
In his memoirs, the Bishop wrote that he thought the war allied with Germany, the struggle of economic groups, which exploited the concept of democracy and freedom. The monk admitted that after 1945, felt compelled to devote my whole charitable work of former national socialists and fascists.
Among the important figures who escaped from Europe are Nazis: Adolf Eichmann (responsible for the murder of 4 million Jews), Josef Mengele (the doctor of the concentration camp Auschwitz, where he experimented on humans), Walter Rauff (inventor of the “gas vans”) and many others.
Trail Of The PhD Kaganovich
One of the bloodiest of the phenomena of the Second world war was the movement of the Croatian fascists, called ustashe. On their conscience of life from 197 000 to 800 000 of Serbs, 30 000 Jews and 80 000 Roma for a small and weakly populated Balkans colossal figure. The largest “rat trail” organized and influential welded a group of Croatian priests of the Franciscan order.
Croatian ustashe saw off the head of captured Serb
Led the organization of Draganovic, PhD, Secretary of the Pontifical Institute in Rome, a significant figure. The headquarters of the network was in the Vatican on the via Tomacelli in the monastery of St. Jerome. The priests-the Franciscans helped the fugitives to illegally enter into Italy, where they were placed in one of the numerous monasteries, and through the Red Cross prepared paper.
The leader of the Croatian Nazi Ante Pavelic
Because of imperfections in the accounting system, the ICRC could not look at anyone who spoke to them, but do not trust influential Franciscans, as they thought, no reason. After the criminals were preparing documents and through the port of Genoa were transported to South America. In 1946, the allies asked the Vatican permission to search in several Church organizations.
Was Pope Pius XII in the course?
May 6, 1945, the leader of the Croatian fascists of Ante Pavelic left Croatia and moved to Austria. If he himself had forged documents in the name of a citizen of Peru, don Pedro Goner. A group of PhD countryman moved to Italy and hid it in the Vatican building of the monastery of St. Jerome. Ante Pavelic had planned to use in the fight against socialist Yugoslavia and its leader Josip with Josip Broz Tito.
Other European Nazis and Argentina’s President Juan Peron
Direct proof – a report of the American counterintelligence agent Robert Clayton Muda. In February 1947 he entered the territory of the monastery, where saw Pavelic and other Croatian Nazis, dressed in monastic clothes. In the city, they rode in cars with diplomatic plates of the Vatican. It is doubtful that Pope Pius XII did not know about the things happening under his nose hoaxes.
Form of the Argentine war after the Second world war
In fleeing the Nazis were interested and the United States. Started a new confrontation with the Soviet Union, and German specialists would be useful in this fight. Through the “rat trail” American intelligence was taken from the Soviet zone of occupation scientists German rocket program. Experience and knowledge of German, Italian, Croatian fugitives came in handy and the heads of South American countries. New footage was used in the fight against Communist guerrillas and opposition. Rat trails — not only the mystery of the Catholic popes. In the walls of the Vatican secret archive is stored, the opening of which is yet to come.Source