A group of international scientists “decoded” the most ancient recipe of bread. As reported broadcasting Corporation BBC, it is more than 14 thousand years.
Previously it was thought that the technology of bread-making originated in Turkey more than 9 thousand years ago. However, recent discoveries made during archaeological excavations in the Black desert in Jordan, indicate that the baking process probably existed for 5 thousand years before. “This is the earliest proof that we can really call it a kitchen, in which there is a mixed food product,” — says Professor Dorian fuller of University College London.
Scientists have tried to recreate the ancient recipe in the laboratory. For this expert of the Institute of archaeology, University College London, Lara Gonzalez, Carretero analyzed 24 discovered during the excavation of the bread crumbs under the electron microscope. “It was bread from flour of wild wheat and barley, mixed with water, cooked in the fireplace. It also added flour from the tubers of wild plants, which gave the product a slightly nutty, bitter flavour”, she said. According to experts, in this bread the ancient people were able to wrap the grilled meat. Thus, being the oldest bread product, it can also be the most ancient Burger.
During excavations in the Black desert, the archaeologists were able to detect two buildings. Each of them was a large circular stone fireplace, within which were found the charred bread crumbs. As a result of studying product samples under the microscope, researchers have identified control signs of grinding, sifting and kneading.
According to experts, the process of production of bread consisted of several stages. The first stage was the grinding of grain and tubers of wild plants to obtain fine flour. Then it was mixed with water and bread was baked in hot ashes of the fireplace or on a hot flat stone. It is assumed that the product looked like a cake and a little like a modern multigrain breads. Researchers believe that ancient people, whose main occupations were hunting and gathering, and made bread on the occasion of major holidays and celebrations.
The process of bread-making occurred before the advent of agriculture, when people began to grow crops and domesticate wild animals. These studies indicate that, probably, the cultivation of grain was the driving force of agriculture at that time. “This, in turn, says one of the possible motives of why people decided to grow and cultivate wheat and barley, since these plants are then occupied a special place among food products,” — says Professor fuller.