Scientists told how the giant hurricanes and typhoons

Ученые рассказали, как устроены гигантские ураганы и тайфуны

During the development of the usual tropical cyclone releases the energy that is several orders of magnitude greater than all the needs of mankind.

Natural disasters are hard to predict — although in Ancient Egypt the development of astronomy and development of calendar largely owe to flooding. This civilization depended on the annual Nile floods, leaving behind silt. Without the annual revenues of this fertile mud agriculture was simply impossible in the country, sandwiched between the deserts. Therefore, the priests and learned to fairly accurately predict flooding on the Nile.

But such situations are rather rare. Yes, we know the regions, where sooner or later there is an earthquake, but to specify its epicenter and destructive power is impossible. Slightly better is the case with volcanoes: fire-breathing mountains will not move, the harbingers of the cataclysm are also known. But how strong would the eruption and how it will develop — nobody knows.

Have the air element is also there are many ways to spoil the life of humanity. One of the most devastating tropical cyclones. In the interaction of air masses and ocean waters released a tremendous amount of energy! It is enough for a huge speed winds, torrential rain and destructive waves. Energy even “average” according to their parameters tropical cyclone commensurate with the explosion of several thousand nuclear bombs.
Yes, scientists know how, where, and how long is hurricane-force winds. But every year in the country consider the loss of another tropical cyclone.

Ученые рассказали, как устроены гигантские ураганы и тайфуны

The basics: a bit of meteorology

Tropical cyclones are called atmospheric vortices, accompanied by strong winds, precipitation, and local sea-level rise (the so-called surge). The diameter of the vortex can reach hundreds of kilometers. From the title it is clear that a natural phenomenon formed over the tropical parts of the oceans (between 5-20° latitude). These include the South-Western part of the North Atlantic, the Pacific ocean West of Mexico, the waters of the Philippine Islands and China sea. In the Indian ocean’s Bay of Bengal, the Arabian sea, the waters off the coast of Madagascar and the North-West coast of Australia. The winds that generate tropical cyclones in the Atlantic are called hurricanes, far East typhoons. Less well-known names Baguio (Philippines), cordonazo (Western Mexico) and Willy-Willy (Australia).

The birth and development of a tropical cyclone is a manifestation of the work of the huge natural heat engine. First, in the atmosphere rise huge masses of water vapour from sun-heated ocean surface. This forms an area of low pressure in the center for the future of cyclone. She and the Coriolis force cause moist air masses to move in a spiral. The vortex tightened more and more masses of moist air, and he begins to move. Rising to a height of pairs condenseries, water falls downpours of rain clouds. Released in the condensation energy heats the air, carries him higher and pulls from the sea surface a new mass of warm moisture.

Ученые рассказали, как устроены гигантские ураганы и тайфуны

To start this mechanism requires a huge space of water, heated to 27 degrees to a depth of approximately two feet. While such conditions persist under the cyclone, he lives. He can just go on the land, and he will lose the feeding energy of the vortex very quickly lost.

In the center of each tropical cyclone is formed round an area of low pressure with a relatively clear and calm weather the so — called eye of the storm. The eye of the storm is limited to the wall of the annular layer of clouds with maximum height. Within the walls of the eye have the most powerful showers and strong winds.

Ученые рассказали, как устроены гигантские ураганы и тайфуны

The wind. In different regions it is called a hurricane, Typhoon, Willy-Willy

Katrina: $125 billion, gone with the wind

The South-East coast of the USA is no stranger to hurricanes. One of the “hospitals” of cyclones is far from it, in the ocean. Cyclones occur there every year to iron Florida and surrounding areas. However, the “Katrina” that hit this region in 2005, stands alone. Let’s start with the fact that this is the most devastating hurricane in history. The damage from it was $125 billion, the Number of victims — 1836 people (in New Orleans — 720).

The situation with the “Katrina” showed that even a rich and developed country can not effectively withstand the elements. Let’s start with the fact that the cyclone has hit economically developed, densely populated region of the richest country in the world — this explains the huge economic damage. Specialists monitor the development of the cyclone, time declared alarm and evacuation. But the manifest stratification of society: those who are richer, went to their cars. Any traffic on the roads, queues at filling stations. Without my car to get out of the disaster zone turned out to be unrealistic. Those who have their own cars had remained in New Orleans, there were 150 thousand New Orleans lying below sea level, was flooded, began the epic rescue of the citizens from the flooded areas… As often happens, it is the courage and humanity of ordinary people overcame failures and incompetence of the authorities at all levels.

Ученые рассказали, как устроены гигантские ураганы и тайфуны

Disaster. After the break of the levees in New Orleans flooded

Bhola: created a new country

In 1970 on the North shore of the Bay of Bengal was struck by a powerful cyclone “Bhola”. It has not been catastrophic, but the confluence of circumstances turned him into the deadliest in the history of hurricanes. The disaster has hit extremely overpopulated lowlands in the Delta of the Ganges, where most of the locals were poor peasants living in huts. The approach of the cyclone to the coast coincided with the onset of the tide: high tide washed villages on the coast and coastal Islands. Hurricane aggravated the situation. From the Pakistani authorities, many mistakes had been made before approach of the storm and in the aftermath. The exact number of victims not identified: call the interval 300-500 thousand.

The actions of the Pakistani authorities, has caused discontent of the population. The protests escalated into a civil war, and later into an armed conflict between India and Pakistan. So in 1971 on the world map appeared the government of Bangladesh.

For victims “Bholi” George Harrison in 1971 is organizing a charity concert. The initiative was supported by Ringo Starr, Bob Dylan, Eric Clapton. The Concert for Bangladesh was held at new York’s Madison square garden. Audience reached 40 thousand people. This was still in existence a tradition of charity concerts with the participation of many international stars.

Ученые рассказали, как устроены гигантские ураганы и тайфуны

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