The Birth Of Kharkov. Who founded the city and what’s ataman Sirko?

Meanwhile, the story in these places, there are points of reference, those days and years, when people come here to be themselves and never ever go away. And about them we will talk about today.

Рождение Харькова. Кто основал город и при чем тут атаман Сирко?

Every big city has its own myth. I’m not saying that for internal use, like discussions, where the treasure is buried or is a secret subway line. This is for children and adolescents. And that’s the story that the tour guides are sure to tell visitors or even the student, though the pensioner distinguish local from come in large numbers…So, in Kharkov, unlike Odessa or Poltava, was nothing like this. The city and its surroundings persistently forget their history, even though it was in sight, and availability. The book of the same Dmitry bagaley, for example, no one in the spetskhran was hiding, but not reprinted.Not history to forget, something remained, small portions. The local proletariat was suggested that the history of factories and plants. But it is important for those who work there and their families.

The memorialization of the revolution? Well, Yes, some adventure, and the whole picture can not be given, because then you have to tell about the Rakov and Patakova, but it’s not nothing, and Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Republic was not mentioned even in the “Short course”, or in its successor, the “brick” the history of the party. It turns out that the story, like the long-distance trains, though not rode Kharkov at all, but made it a short stop.

Meanwhile, the story in these places, there are points of reference, those days and years, when people come here to be themselves and never ever go away. And about them we will talk about today.

The decision of the first Romanov

Almost two and a half centuries the Russian government only looked to their southern forest-steppe lands, but could not to master them — “there is nobody to do”, as would say later, the Emperor Alexander Pavlovich.

Only during the reign of Mikhail Fedorovich was a solution to this seemingly eternal question. He was then conducted detailed topographic surveys of the outskirts of the Wild Field, which resulted in “the Book of Big drawing”. It became clear where the best place to settle the future residents of the region.

In Ukraine the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Orthodox population became absolutely unbearable. And enslavement, and religious oppression, and other “delights” from the kings of the Vasa dynasty, forced the inhabitants of Podolia and Galicia and Dnieper to flee to the East. Where neither the pan nor the priest with the lender.

The Royal government of 1638 was welcomed resettlement “Cherkas” (as they were called in official documents) on vacant land a Wild pitch. To surroundings of the first of the Romanovs and decided to place the duty of protection of Russian southern borders against Tatar attacks.

“The first pancake” which became a success, in this series were the Cossacks of Jacob Ostryanina. In the letter to the Bit order of the Tula Governor in August of 1638 States that coming “…we command you to make Chuguev settlement all in one place, and your thoughts in one place to make them right, for they will close Murawski Sammy, and our business more profitable and to chayat from the Tatar arrival sturegatan”.

After 26 April 1641 by the residents of Chuguev rebelled, killed their commander Jacob Ostryanina and went to Poltava, was immediately relocated temporarily Russian service people — about 400 people. In 1642, on the “eternal life” in the city of Chuguev were transferred to 200 Moscow Musketeers. Later came another 300 refugees from the Dnieper river, fleeing from the Polish-gentry oppression. And these people, and their descendants have not gone anywhere.

Cherkasy was attended by whole villages, basing on the boundaries of forest and steppe settlement. So Wild Field became transformed into Sloboda Ukraine. Began to appear fortress, and Cherkasy, and who came from the East, the knights began to settle. The only one who survived all odds and remained a city of steel Rolls. But mass migration went in the next reign.

Waves of migration

In marching song from Okhtyrka regiment says:

Long ago, during the reign of Alexia,
In the steppes where the Cossacks fought,
On the faces of Moscow Russia
Rodilsya our shelves.

Рождение Харькова. Кто основал город и при чем тут атаман Сирко?

When the Khmelnytsky uprising, the relocation of the Dnieper was organized. Different historians have different number of waves of immigrants from three (Izmail Sreznevsky) to seven (Konstantin Shchelkov, who led the countdown from the Cossacks of Ostryanina). Own version of settlement of the territory was from the Kharkov landowner, a direct descendant of the first local authorities, state Councilor Grigory Fedorovich Kvitka included in a course on Ukrainian literature as Grytsko Kvitka-Osnovyanenko. He, of course, claims the superiority of its near relatives in the development of the region.

The future rector of St. Petersburg University and the son of Kharkiv Professor Izmail Sreznevsky identified three phases of settlement. In his opinion, from 1640 to 1645, that is, at the end of the reign of Mikhail Fedorovich moved from the Dnieper, from 8 to 10 thousand people. Most of them were from the vicinity of Cherkassy, where the bureaucratic term “Cherkasy”. They founded the first settlements on the rivers UDA, Mja, Merle and the Seversky Donets, engaged in hunting and fishing. The bread they received “from the Russian because of the Belgorod line.” History has preserved the name kondrati Sulima, which brought together the new settlers and went with them to the Tatars.

The second wave happened in the early years of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, in the years 1645-1648. It was then moved, according to Sreznevsky, “1247 families and about 2000 too Cossacks.” Among them was noble birth Ticket, Zaharievski, Shidlovsky and Kondratyevs.

And, finally, migration of the year 1650-1651. A mass Exodus from the hardships of the interest.

Here is how he described this migration historian Peter Golovin: “He of peasants, and real Cossacks left their homeland. Leaving their homes entire villages, settlers took away their property and burned all what they could not take with them; some of the villages were taken and the Church with all the utensils and all the amenities and even took the bells; then to Tabor, armed with guns and cannons were set off and, if needed, by force of arms, had cleared the way out leave the Fatherland.

All these people the government of Moscow is reassuring that they will always be granted Royal mercy. Attracting Ukrainians to its borders, the government had in mind not merely the scaling up of population of the state; it had another purpose… to strengthen and guard its border line from unexpected attacks of enemies.

On the overthrow of the Tatar yoke, Moscow government, special attention is paid to the defense of state borders from the raids of Crimean Tatars. With that end in view on the limits of the conducted line of spotted trees, villages and castles, which were inhabited by a special class of servicemen of military people, which is constantly being on duty, to ride in the desert, watch the movement of the Tartars and steppe roads, called the roads and sakami, to intercept languages and deliver to the Governor and the sovereign.” According to the calculations Sreznevsky, in 1654 on this site, there were 80 to 100 thousand inhabitants male. He wrote: “During the third migration in Sloboda Ukraine in it there was already widespread agriculture, and the people began gradually to osivtsi in free novoselie. Resettlement continued after, but they are not as important as the first three.”

From the second and third waves came first, the residents of Kharkiv, Sumy and Akhtyrka — along with the Chuguev and Ostrogozhskom which soon became the regimental towns.

The Gift Of Alexei Mikhailovich

28 Mar 1656 was followed by the decree of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Chuguevsky Governor Sukhotina, which said:

“Our decree is told to be alone in our service to Chuguevsky County for goodavage structure in Zmiev Jacob Khitrovo, in Kharkov Warrior Selifontov and told them of the cities Zmievskaya and Mokhnachevskaya and Pecheneg and Kharkiv and Khoroshevskoe Cherkas know in all things, and you those Cherkas know in no told.

And you will have to Chuguev… about coming… Tatars will commit to lead a… and b… are you referring to Jacob Khitrovo and Warrior by Selifontov… sooba one… new city zmiiv Kharkiv and the cities serving people Cherkas from the Tatar war took the prisoner, and the spoil was not given”.

In this document about the Colonel and the Sergeant said, and Kharkov named the city new; as magistrates with the advent of the colonels of the regiments and suburban Cherkasov did not savedimage, then we can say affirmatively that at the time Colonel in Kharkiv, was not.

Рождение Харькова. Кто основал город и при чем тут атаман Сирко?

Selifontov and supervised the construction of the Kharkiv fortress, and it, along with a led on a plateau at the confluence of Lopan and Kharkov settlers Osadchiy , Ivan Karkach, can be considered the founder of the future of the provincial town and regional center.

“Even my grandfather’s grandfather came to this region, namely in the area of Kharkov, when it was here very few people. The Tatars roamed, then, on this Bank of the Donets and toured in present-day Kharkiv province, in their own land. The first settlers, coming here from different places of Poland and the Ukraine in small batches and even separate families, had to choose for their settlement the place a secretive and inaccessible.

To do this, the other was a location between two rivers Kharkov and Bursting, where these rivers merge with each other and having very swampy shores overgrown with frequent meadow forest, did it from three sides by inaccessible place, and it was covered with unbroken forest, on a hill between the rivers, comes then to the present-day Cathedral. It was such a secretive hideout that was probably selected for settlement by the first immigrants who, by the weakness of their forces, were unable to openly defend themselves and their property from predation by the Tatars.

Where I described the location could be the first settlement, if not there, where clean, healthy water gave the first essential, after meals, the need in everyday life of a villager. The river water was not introduced to such facilities. On all that space in only one place there is a spring water at most R. in Kharkiv, the so-called Belgorod Krinitsa”, wrote the writer Hryhoriy Kvitka-Osnovyanenko, whose ancestors were the Kharkiv colonels.

Features of local identity, historian Peter Golovin stated:“Unproven thus Slobodskaya Ukraine voluntarily took upon himself the protection of the South-Eastern border of the state of Moscow, while taking advantage of the following benefits:

1) the Free occupation of idle lands. 2) Free Cossack device. 3) Freedom of the Cossacks elected in-service drill. 4) the Freedom of the rest of the population to think all sorts of crafts, fishing, malinchista, the distillation and vinopedia. 5) the total Freedom from all taxes and duties, except for military — kozacheskaya. 6) the Right to contain at the mercy of customs, bridges, and airport Shuttle service. Notwithstanding that crafts, slobodans since 1665 salary Belgorod discharge pay tithe”.

Even the neighbors-Belgorod distillation and mills were levied taxes. Soon for merits in the protection against the Tatars and these tithe was abolished.

And the relationship between Cherkasy and settlers from the North has always been peaceful. Russian servicemen people also settled in the territories, and they were prohibited to move to the landowners their serfs. Free peasants settled in the new settlements, and their descendants became known as starotimoshkino. Rights to their land, they defended in the courts a century later.

Not the Hetman, and the king’s

After Pereyaslav Cossacks suburban was not included in the Hetman’s obedience. However, some could not sit on the spot, and they participated in the Affairs of their relatives. But mostly Cossacks defended their identity under the scepter of the Russian Tsar.

Рождение Харькова. Кто основал город и при чем тут атаман Сирко?

Of the Cossacks and poured into their ranks of the gentry the most striking character was the first Sumy Colonel Gerasim Kondratyev. At the end of 1658, in a letter to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich sumchane reported:

“…Came under Sumy Tatariv many people, and the battle was with them. And in Tatariv used from Sumina, steel Suminska County, and the villages and the villages are fighting people in full emlot; and waiting for the big people, and dozhdalsya want to come to our Ukraine city soon.”

Groups of Crimeans were aimed at Slobozhan rebellious Hetman Vygovsky after Gerasim Kondratyev kicked out of the Sum of his messengers, who offered to break the oath and go to the side Vygovsky. Kondratyev, receiving the universal of Hetman, collected the regimental officers and in the presence of her gravely broke the wagon.

1668 year became a serious test for the entire suburban Cossack.

In Hetman of the Ukrainian representatives of a wealthy gentry supported by Poland and Turkey, mutinied under the leadership of Hetman Ivan Briukhovetsky, the purpose of which was the break with Russia.

In the Letter dated February 16, 1668 king promises privileges to Sumy for the fact that “Colonel Kondratiev and his officers, then how they were sent disturbing letters from the Hetman Briukhovetsky, firmly rejected these letters as a harmful lie, and remained faithful to the oath”.

The same document of 28 June 1668 king notes that “the Cossacks and townspeople of the Sumy regiment to serve the Emperor faithfully, fight traitors Cherkasov and Tatars, not sparing their head, and do not flatter their deceptive suggestions than they deserve full praise of the king”.

Patent certificate dated may 5, 1669, the king as a reward for loyalty Sumy Colonel and his officers “forgives fees for the sale of wine and beer, followed previous years, and allows for future duty-free to smoke and sell wine and beer.”

Another Charter of 1669, confirming all earlier given privileges, suggests that they were given and “what cost to Sumy regiment his loyalty during the rebellion.” Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was fond of the regiment “the benefits for the services and for the ruin that commit from the traitors and from the Crimean and Nogai Tatars after infidelity Ivashka Briukhovetsky, and siege”.

Since its founding the fortress city of Kharkiv did not know of the bloodshed and was populated by loyal subjects of the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. Ivan Sirko same, founding the settlement of the Artemivka, near the City (now a satellite city of Kharkov), although a local resident, but long to decide who to serve.Some historians of the city called him the first Kharkiv Colonel, but no documentary evidence for this is not available. The fact that the government in 1668 recognized some of the cities of Kharkiv regiment: Tarabarinov, Mack, serpents, Rolls and Murafa. When Sirko once again decided to change the king in his favor movement began in the Kharkiv ended by killing his opponent Fedor Turnips, keeping faithful to the Emperor.

The historian Dmitriy Bagaley wrote: “In Chuguev and Kharkiv districts supporters Sirko burned the village, the village, bread, and killed some residents. Kharkivtsi initially, at the request of the Belgorod Governor kN. Romodanovsky, “mending fishing” over the rebels; a squad of kharkivtsi went to the dragons and took the gun, left changed Cherkasov.

He Serko came to Kharkov, grabbed several of kharkivtsi, but he was met by gunfire from the fortress guns and he had to go back. Fedor Turnip made to help the Chuguev and defeated the rebels. Hetman Doroshenko sent against Turnips a party of Tartars, and after that there was a rebellion in Kharkov, killed the Turnip, centurion Fedorov, but the majority of the population remained true to the government.”

The number of rebels was small, and the revolt was suppressed by local forces. Soon the dog returned to the Royal service, but not in the Sloboda regiments, has done many deeds for the glory of Zaporizhia army and wrote a famous letter to the Sultan. He denounced the Turkish fortress and the Tatar forces, took the oath and pereprisyagali.

But local Cossack officers did not respond to calls from the West. Kondratyevs and Donets-Zacharzewska, Kovalevskie and receipts faithfully served the tsars and the Cossacks, who under their leadership have built and defended navaneelan land Slobozhanshchina.
Dmitry Gubin

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