The cultivation of Solanaceae: tomato seedlings, pepper and eggplant

For sowing plants use so-called “oily” soils, rich in organic matter.

Вирощування пасльонових: розсади томата, перцю і баклажана

To determine the time of sowing the crops of the Solanaceae family, it is necessary to proceed from the conditions in which they will be grown and time of planting. From the planned time of landing of plants need to count back 60-70 days peppers, and eggplant, and about 40-45 days in tomato, plus 3-7 days to emergence. If plants are scheduled for planting in early may, the optimal time for planting peppers and eggplant the end of February-beginning of March and tomatoes mid-late March.

How to sow

For sowing Plants use so-called “oily” soils, rich in organic matter. It is most convenient to use a soil designed for growing seedlings of vegetable crops or special soil to Plants. Containers for plants must have drainage holes so excess moisture does not stagnate and can freely flow out. While packing pots and cassettes filled ground level, because after watering it it settle a bit.

Вирощування пасльонових: розсади томата, перцю і баклажана

The soil before sowing should be well shed, but the water should not stand, otherwise the seeds may not germinate. But over the seeds slightly dry, loose soil. Depth for planting peppers, tomatoes and eggplants small – about 1.5 cm too small sowing cotyledons come to the surface with the seed skin that you can gently remove opresovki plants from a spray. If too great depth of sowing shoots appear longer. If sown in a box, the distance between the seeds should be about 1-1,5 cm, so the plants do not shade each other, informs Rus.Media.

When sprouts appear

After sowing containers with seedlings covered with foil and put in a warm place. The optimum temperature for crop emergence tomato is about 24-26 ° C, pepper and eggplant – about 26-28 degrees CELSIUS. Tomato goes from 3 to 5 days, but the sprouts pepper and eggplants, you can wait longer – up to 10 days. At optimum temperature, the sprouts will be ready in 5 days at low temperature to 20-22 ° C during 10-14 days, and at a temperature below 17 ° C, almost three weeks later. The film is removed immediately as soon as the green shoots are, even if they are rare and it just loops. If you wait for all, then the plants that come up first pull.

Вирощування пасльонових: розсади томата, перцю і баклажана

Dive

The next task of the gardener-gardener in the cultivation of seedlings of solanaceous crops – dive. First of all, it is necessary for tomato. Swordplay stimulates the development of strong and extensive root system. This is the result of unavoidable injury to the tip of the root during extraction of seedlings from the soil, and encourages further branching. To pick a tomato start in the phase of 1-2 true leaves. It should be remembered that the cotyledons – the first leaves are oblong, which appear on the surface, are not considered leaves. The first leaf is a real tomato, with shares. That’s it when it appears and prepare to dive.

Immediately before the altercation, the seedlings shed – so they will be easier to extract from the soil. It is most convenient to remove the seedlings from the soil Unsharp knife. For further growth of the tomato is sufficient capacity size 6*6 cm or 8*8 cm

Before you pick the substrate you want to prepare. Disinfection is one of the important stages, especially if growing seedlings are used independently prepared soils. In this case, the soil should be prepared in advance, for 2-3 days, protocity with water first, and then with a solution of Farmaid (10 ml/1 l of water). After treatment of the soil Farmadom you need to wait 2-3 days and only then begin to nose dive. It is convenient to use special soil for tomatoes, peppers and eggplant, or vegetable seedlings. Prepared soils do not require prior preparation, liming, have an optimum particle size and contain all the necessary nutrients for the proper development of seedlings.

During the dive it is possible to correct the deficiencies of the seedlings. Immediately cull the seedlings without growth points – they can be clearly seen that the cotyledons them more dark and rough, these leaves do not grow. If the seedlings stretched, then during the dive they are almost lying down, at an angle, so that the ground was almost at the level of the cotyledons. An important point during the dive to prevent the formation of air cavities in the soil in the root zone. Because of this, plants can not settle down. Therefore, the soil it is necessary to press after you put the seedling in the ground. The easiest way to try, no spaces at the roots – gently pulling the seedling. If you get it it fails, done correctly, if the seedling is easily pulled out, then the contact of the roots with the soil was not necessary rosput it again. After the pick, it is advisable to lightly water the plants.

The tomato seedlings are easily transferred to the pick and quickly take root. The situation with pick peppers and eggplant a little different. If in the case of tomato all clearly – dive you need, when growing seedlings of pepper and eggplant there are two ways – with and without dive.

Pepper and eggplant is much harder to tolerate this procedure, so often they recommend to sow directly to a permanent place. However, if this is not possible, be aware that when you are growing seedlings with swordplay, seedling period increases by about 2 weeks. If in the case of tomato with swordplay and can pripisati, making this procedure 3-4 leaves, in the case of pepper and eggplant is better not to delay, because older seedlings have a lower tolerance pick.

Care of seedlings

Once the plants take root, you can start fertilizing. Feed seedlings every 7-10 days using a solution of humic fertilizers. For feeding 2 capfuls of fertilizer dissolved in one liter of water. Depending on the capacity in which the seedlings grow, watering and fertilizing the plants one goes from 150 to 400 ml. If plants begin to stretch, you should limit watering to lower the temperature and place the plants at a greater distance, if space allows.

Вирощування пасльонових: розсади томата, перцю і баклажана

By the time planting tomato plants should have depending on the grade 5-9 leaves and a flower shaped brush, pepper plants and eggplant should have 8-10 leaves and the first buds. Before transporting and planting the seedlings 2-3 days are not watered. So plants are less fragile and virtually unbreakable. By the time of transplanting, the roots completely envelop a clod of earth. In order to get a plant before planting, it is sufficient to place the hand on the pot so that the plant between your fingers, gently flip over and lightly hit the bottom of the pot. If the seedlings grown in cassettes, it is enough to move a clod finger up through the hole at the bottom of the cell.

Combating disease and pests

As soon as spring comes, the sun warms, Wake up pests. Seedlings often they fall through the open Windows during ventilation. Most often, the seedlings can meet spider mites, thrips and aphids. For pest control in the home you can use products of biological origin.

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