The day of Ukrainian writing and language 9 Nov was established in Ukraine in 1997. On the same day the Orthodox Church honors the Holy memory of Saint Nestor the chronicler. Which came first – the chicken or the egg the Ukrainian language society – the question of today is not the silence of the Cabinet, and the fields of an undeclared civil war II if about Nestor the Chronicler more or less clear — he is the author of the “tale of bygone years” chronicle, compiled in Kiev in the early twelfth century, the Ukrainian language that more, less. It all depends on the position from which to value its history, content and present status.
“The tale of bygone years” has been and remains an outstanding monument of Slavic culture. So the monk Nestor the chronicler can rightly be considered the father of not only Russian history, but also literature. So believe in Russia. Think so, and in Ukraine. Except that in Russia the Slavic identified with Russian, and in Ukraine — not at all. For the Fatherland now have, in new documents, different.
Moreover, scientists of the National reserve Sophia of Kyiv now claim that the language of numerous graffiti (scratched on the ancient walls of the temple of the inscriptions) — Ukrainian. On the grounds that forms of address and other linguistic features correspond to the modern Ukrainian language, not modern Russian. Does this mean that such “will” was not at all in the Russian language? It does not. Just in the process of evolution, they could be changed, bytesmiths, replaced, reduced. And in the Ukrainian version of Slavic language — persist. Due to some reasons izolyatsionistov or of any other nature.Linguistic archaeology, if desired, can provide a lot of interesting facts the inquiring mind. For idly interested reader is easier to explain on the literary examples. Because any stable language exists only in written form, and, except Nestor, wrote on the territory of Ukraine and other scholars.
In Ukraine it is considered that the birth of Ukrainian literature began Kotlyarevsky, picked up Kvitka-Osnovyanenko, and the culmination was the work of Taras Shevchenko. For the author of this triad is somewhat different: Kotlyarevskiy — Pan — Shevchenko.
Kotliarevsky, Ivan Petrovitch was the first who published an essay on the “little Russian language”. This language is specified on the cover sheet lifetime editions of his humorous poem “Eneida” (1798 first edition). The original poem Kotlyarevskogo closer in the vocabulary of the Russian language than Ukrainian: 74% of the word matches with the Russian language, and only 59% of the matches with the Ukrainian.
For publication “ENEIDE” 1798 in St. Petersburg was accompanied by the vocabulary used in the text of the poem special little Russian words, but no explanation for the special ways to read the letters there. Consequently, the text written in the conventional alphabet state in the country edition of the text (Russian Empire) with conventional correspondences between letters and sounds.
It is worth mentioning the literary poem, citing authoritative opinion: “Eneida” Kotlyarevsky is the writing is not completely original, its concept, composition and even the artistic means borrowed… Quite a superficial observation, to install a large dependence “ENEIDE” Kotlyarevskogo from the Russian “ENEIDE” Osipova and Kotelnikovo…. All the main episodes of the poem of Virgil Kotlyarevsky retells the poem Osipova: no features of Virgil, which Kotlyarevsky would have made his narrative alone, square of “Eneida” Osipova. And not only characteristics of not only humorous comments about certain episodes, but the individual expressions, comparisons, apt aphorisms, jokes, fun “KOVOSVIT”, macaronic poetry — a lot of that is credited stylistic skill Kotlyarevsky, often banal translation from Osipova. (The author of these observations — M. Zerov)
On the other hand, the Ukrainian — there is a strong opinion that the “Aeneid” refutes the thesis of Russian propaganda 2014-2015 that there is no Ukrainian nation, and there are “Polonized dialect” of the Russian language, and “Ukrainians” — is “little Russians.” After all, at the end of the eighteenth century, in 1798 in the first three parts of the “Aeneid” Kotlyarevskogo with extensive, with more than 1000 Ukrainian-Russian Glossary. Yes, exactly — Ukrainian-Russian. Obviously, sometimes wishful thinking, if you neglect the source. At the same time ignoring “Anadu” Osipov, and speaking only that Kotlyarevsky continued the tradition of the Frenchman P. Scarron, German A. Blumauer and other European writers.
I must say that the writers of Ukrainian romanticism, with the 1840-ies claiming the Ukrainian language in a wider stylistic and thematic range, sought to distance themselves from the “Kotlyarevsky”. Taras Shevchenko in 1838, wrote on the death of the poet an enthusiastic poem “To eternal memory of Kotliarevsky”, which made him famous as the Creator of the immortal “Aeneid”, in 1847 certified “Aeneid” as “showino on maskovskiy shtalt”.
A friend of Shevchenko, Panteleimon Kulish was later called Kotlyarevskogo expressing “anti-national sample taste” of the soul poizdevalis in his “Aeneid” over the “Ukrainian nation”, putting off “everything that could find pans cartoon, funny and absurd at worst specimens of the commoner,” and the language of the poem called “sample tavern Ukrainian conversation”. (Kulish P. A. review of the Ukrainian literature // Basis. 1861. No. 1. S. 244, 246. 247.)
It would be possible to include these passages at the expense of intra-species, so to speak, of the struggle among Ukrainian writers, if any, existed at the time. But the next object of attention suffered from homegrown critics maybe more of the author’s Ukrainian “Aeneid”. Talking about Grigory Savvich Skovoroda, which the same poet said the following: “it seems to Me, no one has so carefully studied the confused works of the philosopher Skovoroda, as the Prince Shakhovskoy. In little Russian the works of the venerable Prince with all the details reflected the idiot frying Pan. And respectable audience sees in the crippled real Russians. My poor countrymen!..”. Although the writer Nikolai Gogol, by contrast, belonged to the heritage of Hryhoriy Skovoroda with approval. And that approve: the specificity of the language of the Pan was observed already his disciple Kovaleski, who argued that Pan wrote “in Russian, Latin, and Hellenic language”, although sometimes used “little Russian dialect”.
The fact that Skovoroda wrote all his major works in Russian, caused great indignation among the Ukrainophiles at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. “Sbila s plivo Latin and potim moskovschina” said the same Taras. And Ivan Nechuy-Levitsky, in General, refers to the Russian language negatively, reluctantly wrote that the originality of the language of the Pan due to the fact that literary language was “absorbed by Lomonosov and returned to Ukraine in great colors.” At the same time, religious language is not yet extinct. Pan also could not abandon the native folk language. All these branches, according to the writer, “Pan mixed together, sometimes in surprising language songs are wonderful, Ryabykh and overall dark.”
Known ukrainist immigrant second wave Shevelov, after a philological analysis of several key works of Hryhoriy Skovoroda, came to the conclusion that frying Pan in their works adhered to a variety of the Russian language, though different from the literary language of Moscow and St. Petersburg. According to the linguist, the originality of the language of Gregory Skovoroda reflects, first of all, dialectal features of the Russian language characteristic of the educated class of Sloboda Ukraine region. The researcher notes that “discarding glasses of romanticism and populism”, the language of Pan should be considered as a variation of the Russian language with elements of Church Slavonic and the people’s vocabulary.
Noting the peculiarity of the language of Skovoroda other reputable researcher Y. M. Lewis writes: “Today, the language in which Skovoroda wrote poems, fables, and prose dialogues needs not just in tolerance, but in the strongest rehabilitation. Pan writer felt very comfortable in the contemporary linguistic element, she was not embarrassed and did not serve as a hindrance to his expression. We translate all his creations to contemporary modern Russian or Ukrainian, and how many found irreparable loss!”.
As the elements of Baroque culture in key works of Skovoroda as a break also receive the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, German, Polish and even Hungarian.
About this, if I may say, “salad”, and expressed in our time publisher of slobozhanske Kharkov Alexander Krasovitsky, “In the Folio editions of the Pan is not given in Russian (in translation) and in Ukrainian (also in translation, as in most publications), and his Skovorodino dialect. It could be called a mixture, it is possible Slobozhansky dialect, you can bust the old Slavonic words in the Russian language — but it is from the frying Pan into literary language and those words, which are then included in the Ukrainian language.”
Some very persistent researchers of the phenomenon of language Fryer even give an amusing statistic in the presence of his works share a variety of literature: in the first place — “the Slavic dictionary basis” (34,9%), followed by “tserkovnosti dictionary” (27,6%), the third — “vostochnobeisky” (18,9%), then — “asianism” (7.8%), and only on the fifth place — “ukrainianism” (3.1 percent). The rest — the words of non-Slavic languages.
Comments are superfluous. Unless it’s comments of the frying Pan: “Everyone must know their people and the people themselves. Russia do you? Whether it: Orthodox believe, serve the Queen right, love the brethren “nravno.” Lyakh do you? Lyakh be. Are you German? Nematistius. French you? Francuzi. Tartar do? Tatarstani. All good in their place…” And further: “Russia is not a Russian gimmick seems to me as if a person was born with a fish tail or a dog’s head”. Here, indeed, contains the clue to the right decision of the language issue. Because the Russian literary language was originally developed as a Russian language common to all parts of historical Russia. For Ukraine in particular.
The contribution of Ukrainians to the development of this language is huge. For educated people it was a native. Uneducated as people in Russia were talking in their local common parlance, which, however, along with the literary speech, was considered as varieties of a single Russian language. For example, during the first census of the population of Kiev and its suburbs in 1874, 38% of citizens have named their native Russian literary language, 30,2% — the little Russian dialect, 7,6% — great Russian dialect, 1,1% — Belarusian.
Since the second half of the NINETEENTH century, a group of politicians from ukrainophile movement began to develop another literary language, named after the Ukrainian. And a major figure of modern Ukrainian literature, was appointed Taras Shevchenko. No need to stay in the framework of this text on the twists and turns of fate academician graphics, writing his prose in Russian. Fate would have it, the first plan was made of his poetic experiments in the first place — the protest of nature. The former serf, who passed away in the year of abolition of serfdom, could not be better suited for the role of the spokesman of thoughts and aspirations of ordinary working — Ukrainian — people. The fact that in the process he, as they say in Ukraine, “aplugin” (blasphemed) the tsars, in Soviet times, all tripled. Now the light of day angling poems directed against Moscow and Russia. Those more modern to the poet of Moscow and Russia, but now the Ukrainian “patriots” is not critical. The thing that says “move on” and about “Moskal”.
During the life of Shevchenko in the Ukrainian language, was released several editions of “Kobzar”: first, in 1840 in St. Petersburg, the book was only 20 pages; the second edition was in 1844 along with the poem “gajdamaki”, under the General title “Chyhyryn Kobzar”, and appeared solely because by itself, the poem “Haidamaky” published in 1841-1842 year, almost sold, and from 1844 was in the “load” to the second edition of “Kobzar”; the third edition was in 1860, after the return of Shevchenko from Moskal (soldier), back to Peter. It is known that the compilers of this work, which gave the nickname to the poet, had to work hard to give the poems a literary form. Whether Shevchenko so ignorant that printing his opus without editing was absolutely impossible or he wrote them under the influence, or the rules of the Ukrainian grammar as such at that time did not exist — now find out definitively is not possible.
But it turns out that the lifetime edition of “Kobzar” of the common man to look problematic. Even the photocopy is not normal, that we could look at what, after all, the language he wrote the classic of Ukrainian literature. Moreover, even the posthumous publication of “Kobzar” virtually non-existent before the Soviet time and those that are — composed, edited and translated in Lviv, which was then part of the Habsburg Empire.
And here we could start to think about polonism, which is pretty in the modern Ukrainian language. As well as native German words “kreid” (chalk), “tsegla” (brick), “grit” (wire) and “no” (sugar), firmly included in the MOV together, apparently, with the items they did in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. You can remember about Lviv “gvar” — a special mixture, which the Galicians almost proud. But what will it be relevant to the Ukrainian language of the interior provinces? Probably very, very far.
It would be rabid chauvinism to assume that a particular historical community has the right to their language. And the right of Ukrainians to their own language has passed the test Askim decree, the Decree of the CPC, “skrincosky spelling” and other linguistic experiments. In particular, recently introduced the “eterni” and “katedrale” instead of “esters” and “departments”. And it just so happens that the Ukrainian language today is still not completed their maturation, and, like any teenager, occasionally behaves like a maximalist. It denies his kinship with the Russian. Do not accept borrowings from other European languages. And then bow before the new idol of the English.
Well said about the language as a living organism, which develops according to its laws, a famous poet Maxim Rylsky. Literally translated, it reads:
As a branch of the vine,
Cherish the language.
Closely and continually
She let it be.
Faithfully and obediently
Let every time she serves you,
Although his living life.
In each case, can be considered a weed, and that the fruit of living life, only time will tell. And it will appear in the Ukrainian language Chinese characters? At least “Sho” and “GE”. Because without them, have in the global economy will not survive.Ali Serenadin