© 2019 AFP / Sergei Supinsky
The adoption by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine of the law on free land market in Kiev are trying to present almost as a “departure from centuries of feudalism and serfdom”. However, these beatific estimation, you can meet on channels and blogs paid propagandists of the regime in Kiev — while the Ukrainian street on the adoption of the new land law protests, raging and subconsciously feels “Robbed!”Of course, the question of free sale and purchase of the Ukrainian agricultural land primarily for the citizens of Ukraine, however, the adoption of the land law has created a second round of discussions in Russia. Where, oddly enough, the free sale of agricultural land has existed for nearly two decades — it was first allowed in the Federal law “On turnover of agricultural land” in the distant 2002.Why free sale of land of the Ukrainian situation threatens to become for the country a national disaster? And should we be afraid of repetition of the Ukrainian plots on open spaces of Russia?
Apparently, the early adoption of the land reform was part of the pool is absolutely non-public, but indispensable conditions the election of Vladimir Zelensky on a post of the President of Ukraine. Lost somewhere on the last pages of his electoral programme a promise to open the market for the sale of land suddenly became almost the basis of survival of Ukraine — according to official government propaganda.
Little the concerns of ordinary Ukrainians changes in the rights to free disposal of agricultural land have become so important for Zelensky and his party, they even went to public scandal — two deputies from the faction of “Servant of the people” who voted against the land act literally the same day was expelled from the party and fractions.This became immediately clear: Zelensky and his faction, the law does not just have to make, but was necessary to make it the most urgently and without any uncomfortable questions about the content of the document.
And questions about the law was and is enough. Moreover, had these questions not only from critics of the land law in Ukraine, but seemingly loyal to the liberal land reforms of the European Union. It turned out that in the rush to Ukraine forget about all the formalities that accompany the opening of a land market. For example, it was found that out of almost 40 million hectares of agricultural land in the country is correct and complete cadastral documents provided today less than half — only about 19 million hectares. No one thought of Kiev and the establishment of a land Bank, which would have a civilized way to take land as collateral and to issue under its software credits — all “public servants” felt completely unnecessary and irrelevant. And finally, apart from the emerging land market turned out to be the territorial community — they are in the text of the new law just “forgot”.
A frankly slapdash approach to the “framing” of a free land market raises serious questions — and a “pig in a poke” sell today, Ukrainian citizens under the guise of the mythical “departure from serfdom”?
The right of the strong
The process of liberalization of the land market and its implications has repeatedly tested in a variety of countries. In fact, in today’s global world, this is over and over again to the same situation — the local peasants, farmers and even large landowners sooner or later rounded up off their land, which for a pittance buy transnational companies-monopolists.This process is steadily going forward in Ukraine without an open land market: the major Ukrainian landowner, the Ukrainian oligarch Oleg bakhmatyuk already owned more than half a million hectares of Ukrainian land, and the largest foreign owners, Americans George Rohr and Moris Tabashnik slightly from Bakhmatyuk behind, concentrated in the hands of more than 400 thousand hectares of farmland. At this stage of the confiscation of land from Bakhmatyuk in favour of unknown beneficiaries started in a few days — against the oligarch who does not occupy any public office, suddenly opened the National anticorruption Bureau of Ukraine (NABU), which should deal exclusively with the officials. In the end, “major landowners” the country now faces the government of Ukraine on the borders of the Square, and over his land to the Empire, dark clouds.
In such a scenario, the establishment of foreign regulationi the “servants” also have their prepared propaganda response, saying that what’s wrong if the Ukrainian land buying by foreigners — either themselves or through their nominees managers? Investment will come, will bring new technology to our fertile soil and make us “farm story.” We have something and do nothing will!However, the situation turns quite different. Because their agricultural monopolies in Ukraine have once had and left behind they are not only palaces and parks, but a completely different land. Little known fact — the famous Oleshky Sands desert is located today in the lower reaches of the Dnieper, two centuries ago, was a juicy feather-grass steppe. In the eighteenth century there began to import sheep. Only one Baron Falz-FEIN, founder of Askania Nova, owned in Ukraine huge herds of up to a million heads. Sheep as a result of overgrazing is completely destroyed vegetation, released Sands and wind erosion has given them the opportunity to expand. As a result of desertification of the South of Ukraine had to literally save the world, and Askania-Nova became a kind of redemptive gift of the Falz-FEIN for the destroyed feather-grass steppe.
Today’s multinational companies in a lot worse of Baron Falz-FEIN — they are not interested in growing in Ukraine only that the country today produces in agriculture. Ukrainian black soil are well suited for the production of sunflower and rapeseed will be planted! No matter if in ten or twenty years, these oilseed crops will exhaust the fertile layer of the soil is an important profit today, not soil fertility once in a decade. So there is nothing surprising in the fact that the potatoes or onions in Kiev stores almost more than in Moscow, no vegetables in the country the best black soil in the world is simply no one to raise. The peasants went to work, and the landowners are not interested.But it is much more dangerous than the other. The arrival of multinational companies put an end to the biological diversity of cultivars and breeds of domestic animals which more or less survived until now in Ukraine.
Global companies such as “Monsanto”, “Syngenta”, “pioneer”, “Leverkusen” and a dozen others, has long been considered the seeds of plants and breeds of domestic animals as a commercial property. The peasants, farmers and small producers just fall into the “new slavery” of such varieties and breeds, as they cannot reproduce on their farms.The easiest and most often used method today is the hybridization of varieties and breeds, when farmers on the ground are transmitted only hybrids, giving a good yield or a gain only in the first generation, and degenerate in the second. Company a monopoly and patent the same store at “clean lines”, which they are every year used for the production of the next batch of disposable hybrids.
Besides, the companies-monopolists are trying to destroy local competitors, producing their varieties conventional breeding, often better adapted to local conditions. So, one of the first steps of the global international agricultural companies became possible destruction in Ukraine, all local seed and breeding farms, which can keep the varieties and breeds that may compete with their hybrids.The result of growing one or more of monocultures are well-known and very simple — it is a huge risk for the country and its population. A classic example is the famine of the nineteenth century in Ireland, which then was critically dependant on a single plant potatoes. By the early nineteenth century, the Irish have almost completely lost their land holdings, which were bought up EN masse by the British and were forced EN masse to plant potatoes. In the end, almost all of the Irish field in the country to 1845 was planted one variety of potato, which came under attack of late blight — rot that destroyed almost the entire crop. A few years later a terrible famine and mass emigration, Ireland lost 20-25 percent of its population.
And that in Russia?
Well, I’ll tell the attentive reader. And you’re scaring us a free land market in Ukraine, as in Russia, the sale of farmland was allowed a long time ago?Yes, indeed, Russia in the mid 2000-ies almost ended up in the same situation as Ukraine today. Then, with the liberalization of the land market in the country tried to enter the same multinational company and to subdue the entire agricultural sector of the country. And only through a complex and confusing process of combating this activity has been halted and even reversed.
Consider as an example the seed industry.A decade ago Russia was on the verge of defeat. Reached terrible facts — seeds from the famous collection of the Vavilov uncontrollably exported outside Russia, primarily in the “doomsday Vault” on Svalbard, and these operations are not consistent with any of the regulatory authorities. Well, the criminal activity of foreign emissaries in other Russian breeding farms and all blossomed riotous color.
Ten years ago there were serious concerns that can come a time when farmers have to buy seeds for the new sowing global monopolies, which would be owned by all production factors for agriculture. “Svalbard” was then the only such a large seed Bank with a sufficiently stringent policy for issuing of seed comers. After all, to planetary monopoly on all varieties of agricultural plants was the blue dream of the owners of transnational corporations and those who are behind them.The situation in Russia was able to reverse only the beginning of the 2010-ies. Adopted a Federal programme for the preservation of biological diversity helped to create the modern national repository of seeds for Yakutsk. It at the initial stage is already stored about 100 thousand samples, and soon the plan, its capacity will be increased to one million samples. Russian cryostorages are located in the thickness of permafrost: natural conditions allow to maintain a constant temperature of minus two degrees, which will give an opportunity to store seeds tens and even hundreds of years.After the establishment of the national repository of seeds in Russia in the same way it went in China, India, UAE and several other countries, effectively destroying, or at least questioning the monopoly of transnational corporations on “seeds of the future.”
But in the Ukrainian Parliament on such or similar protective measures absolutely do not think — because orders “servants of the people” give the ones who still want to get a planetary monopoly on seeds, land and food production. Then a repetition of the Irish stories of the XIX century in Ukraine will be only a matter of time and circumstances.Alex Anpilogov