The hieroglyphic staircase, jewel of the ruins of the Mayan city of Copan (western Honduras) is still protected only by a tarpaulin, just 40 years after the ruins were classified as World Heritage by Unesco.
The 63 steps of the impressive 1,100 boulder structure of volcanic tuff rise up to 12 meters high in the tropical jungle, 300 km northwest of Tegucigalpa.
The staircase “is an exceptional combination of architecture, sculpture and writing”, underlines the French archaeologist René Viel, who guides the AFP team through the ruins.
However, this heritage is threatened by the affronts of time and demographic pressure: it is high time to “develop a protection strategy” for the site, warns the archaeologist.
The game is worth it: the ruins of Copan are a unique testimony to the Mayan civilization that extended its influence to the present-day territories of southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and Honduras.
In 426 CE, King Kinich Yax K'uk 'Mo', dubbed by the King of Teotihuacan (southern Mexico), founded in the valley of the Copan River a dynasty and a political, civil and religious center. This would extend over 24 km2 for almost four centuries, until February 10, 822, after the reigns of sixteen sovereigns.
If the ruins of Copan pride themselves on their ball-playing field, the second largest in Central America, and the tunnels that lead to the royal tombs or to the buried temple of Rosalila, “the hieroglyphic staircase is its monument. more emblematic, ”emphasizes René Viel.
The structure bears the longest text of all known remains of the Mayan civilization. The glyphs trace the history of the kingdom and its rulers.
The city, whose ruins number a thousand buildings, was organized around the acropolis and a central square, according to a cosmological plan which served as a benchmark for astrologers to follow the movements of the sun and the moon.
For archaeologists, who qualify the city of “Mayan Athens”, there is no doubt that here a theocratic monarchical society was established which had advanced knowledge in mathematics, astrology, architecture and writing.
A divine king
It was the 13th king of the dynasty, known as “18 Conejo”, who initiated the construction of the staircase, continued and completed by his two successors, “Humo Mono” and “Humo Caracol”.
At its peak, the city had as many as 25,000 or 30,000 inhabitants, but the agglomeration, victim of poor harvests and stricken by famine, fell into decline in just 60 years, with the population dropping to around 8,000. .
“Here the king, like the pharaoh in Egypt, was the pillar of social and political organization. He was above all a priest, a divine king “… but he lost all credibility when he was wrong in his predictions on the rains and the time of sowing. “That was the end of this social structure,” explains the French archaeologist.
The protection of the city abandoned for more than a millennium is “a great responsibility”, confides the director of the site, Eliud Guerra.
There was a plan to replace the tarpaulin that protects the stairs from bad weather with a more suitable structure, but the health crisis has stopped everything.
However, the data collected by half a thousand sensors measuring temperature, humidity, winds and sun exposure were reassuring, according to the director of the Archaeological Park. The tarpaulin, despite its rudimentary appearance, plays its protective role well.
So much the better, because, recognizes Eliud Guerra, it will take at least two years for a new structure to be installed, made up of 16 transparent sails which will improve the protection of the precious staircase. And which will make the site look better.