This allowed us to obtain accurate data on the speed of rotation of the black hole.
Astrophysicists have observed the destruction process admisiune black hole of a star that passed by that made it possible to obtain accurate data on the rotation speed of a supermassive black hole. The results presented in the paper published in Science, the authors also presented a report on the 233 meeting of the American astronomical society in Seattle, informs Rus.Media.
The speed of rotation of the black hole is still with great difficulty was beyond measurement. Previously, scientists were able to determine the rotational speed of some black holes in the milky way, belong to the class of black holes of stellar mass (from 5 to 30 solar), through the observation of regular changes in their x-ray radiation. For supermassive black holes observations were limited to a few cycles of changes, which did not allow to clearly print the value of the rotation speed.
In November 2014, with the help of a network of telescopes under the name ASASSN (All-sky Automated Survey for Supernovae) astronomers saw a bright flash of light at a distance of about 290 million light years from Earth. The event was called ASASSN14-li and has been classified as a result of tidal destruction of stars (when one object is destroyed the other, much larger, with gravitational effects). It happened in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole, the center of the galaxy PGC 043234. Upon discovering the fire, the scientists involved in the study are sensitive to x-ray radiation Observatory NASA: Chandra telescope and Neil Grls swift, and XMM-Newton telescope, – the residue in the stars, whirling to the center of a supermassive black hole, will become very hot and produce a huge amount of x-rays. From them is formed the extended accretion disk, which before the discovery ASASSN14-li could not accurately study.
Observations ASASSN14-li showed a surprising stability and periodicity (the spin cycle a little more than two minutes). It gave the first opportunity to accurately assess the rotation speed of a supermassive black hole: signalling that the diameter of the event horizon is about 300 times higher than the earth, astronomers have calculated that the speed of rotation of the black hole is huge and is about half the speed of light in vacuum (for comparison, the speed of rotation of the Sun around its axis less than the speed of light in 150 thousand times). Moreover, the accuracy of measurement, according to astronomers, is very large, because the measurements were carried out for 300 thousand cycles of rotation.
The absorption of the stars of companion black holes studied by astronomers long ago, in 2015, the gamma ray Observatory INTEGRAL has recorded a rare event – the absorption of the black hole companion star. But this discovery will probably give new impetus to the study of tidal destruction and can be the key to the measurement of speeds of rotation of supermassive black holes with dramatic changes in the brightness of x-ray radiation.