Historically, that part of the lands of ancient Rus became part of Poland, and after the partition of Poland between Russia, Prussia and Austria became part of Austria, which was later transformed into Austria-Hungary. The inhabitants of these lands were called Rusyns. With the aim of weakening ties with the Russians Ruthenians living in the neighboring Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian authorities supported the transformation of Rusyns in the new nation – the Ukrainians. Among the Ruthenians were also supporters of dissociation from the Russian people in special people, but there were opponents.
In the lands of Galicia, inhabited by Rusyns, the dominant position was occupied by the poles. The ideal was considered to make the Ruthenians from poles-Catholics, that is polonised them. But such a fundamental change of the worldview of an entire people was very difficult. Almost impossible. Therefore, it is possible to delay the Galician Ruthenians from the Russian Orthodox, was chosen the middle path – Rusyns was to become the Ukrainian Uniates. In parallel in the Russian Empire part of the little Russian intelligentsia preached the establishment of the Russians on the basis of a separate Ukrainian nation.
USA and Austria-Hungary — two parallel center of disengagement Rusynism and the formation of Ukrainians
Franz Joseph I on 28 July 1914 declared war on Serbia and began mobilization of the army – the First world war, soon after the Emperor died, and the Empire disintegrated. Monuments to Franz Joseph I in the cities of Chernivtsi and Ivano-Frankivsk (photo) established the “Euro-integrators” in Ukraine
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the mass emigration of the Ruthenians of Austria-Hungary to the United States of America. It was the mass migration of them to other countries, but in parallel was emigration to Canada, Australia, Brazil, Argentina. After working the coal mines and metallurgical plants immigrated and women, so even the second generation, along with the English language, possessed Ruthenian. As for the Russians, that while they lived richer Rusyns and mass emigration overseas was not taken, it was individual cases, and their Diaspora in the United States in the early twentieth century was negligible.
Moreover, one of the principal figures of cultural and political movements of the Russophiles in the Austro-Hungarian priest Ivan Naumovich, concerned about the mass emigration of the Galician Ruthenians to the Americas, generated by the agrarian overpopulation and malozemelets, decided to send this motion to the Caucasus. This made for Rusyns permission to buy land in Novorossiysk and Sukhumi districts at a low price, 5 rubles per acre, and then only in installments. But he died suddenly, when in 1891 he went to select land for resettlement. Contemporaries believed that the priest was poisoned. If the idea Naumovich came to life, the history of Ukrainians could go a completely different way.
Contacts between leaders of the Ukrainians from the Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires widely known. As for the contacts of figures of Ukrainian Diaspora of the USA and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, this little studied region. And if you take the contact figures of Ukrainians from Ukraine and Diaspora, they are reported first through the Austro-Hungary, although it has established direct contacts, but they were not widespread.
Interesting from the point of view of the story is that at the time of the emergence of a relatively large Ruthenian Diaspora in the United States the process of separation of the Ukrainian part of the most Rusyns in the Austro-Hungarian Empire never ended. When June 5, 1912, the term “Ukrainian” instead of the traditional “Ruthenian” first appeared in an official document of the Austro-Hungarian monarch Franz Joseph I, the scandal broke. It turned out, the house of Habsburg, the term “is used accidentally, the result of editorial oversight”.
The process of creating the Ukrainians in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and in the American Diaspora, carefully nurtured and coordinated exclusively Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC). In modern science its center is called Eastern Galicia – the land of the Carpathian region, which are now in the Western Ukraine – Lviv, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk region, as well as Poland – the Lemko land with old Przemysl. And there, and there was a separation of the Ruthenians into Russophiles, those who gravitated to Russia, and Russophobes, who soon even his name was changed to the Ukrainians, so they didn’t want them to associate with Russia. The process is carefully coordinated down to the exchange of official representatives.
Hatred of all things Russian – the essence of Galician Ukrainians
It is significant that the final demarcation of the Ruthenians and Ukrainians occurred almost simultaneously in the American Diaspora and Galicia and coincided with the beginning of the First world war, although the process of disengagement was gradual.
Here is what I wrote June 12, 1913, the newspaper of the Ukrainian nationalists in the US “Freedom”, which purports to be the prototype of the American ethnic press. And in the 1913 “Liberty” was on the Russian national Union of the United States, the Ukrainian people’s Union, the organization was renamed only after a year.
“The Austrian government had the opportunity to choose or support the Russophile-werewolves or true Rusyns-Ukrainians and Russophile-werewolves… who was ashamed of the language of his people… They appealed to Russia, the Tsar, the generals and tycoons, Moscow Russian language and ready to have a rich literature, in a word – all Russian-Moscow… Austria had the choice: either to support these Russophiles and artificially to create in his state of the Muscovites, and thus to raise himself to clear the enemies that fire will have to wait to get rather under a priest-king, or to support those for whom a pure idea, a sacred thing, that is, Ruthenians, Ukrainians…”
What choice did Austria-Hungary have shown the next year when the Russophile thrown into concentration camps. But in this quote it is indicative of one important point. Supporters of the Ukrainians in Galicia and in the American Diaspora, the US accused his opponents that they gravitate to the Russian literary language. And indeed it is. A parallel process was in the Ukraine when the intellectuals-liberals created on the basis of little Russian folk dialects of a particular language. The same process went on in Galicia, but on a large scale, because Galicia was separated from Russia. Nevertheless, the Ruthenian Russophiles fair proved to his opponents that Russian literary language has already been created. And there is no need to create another, as Rusyns is quite clear that the language that exists in the Russian Empire. By the way, in the above quotation, it is implicitly recognized in the words of the rich Russian literature, although the quote is bursting with hatred for everything Russian. Despite the fact that the article was written not in Galicia and in the United States. But the process of struggle for a new language was paralleled in Galicia and Ruthenian Diaspora in the US and partially raised Ruthenia.
The idea of the superiority of the Galicians on the other Ukrainians
“Traitor”: this word and the way since the beginning of the XX century was formed the whole essence of the Ukrainian Galician nationalism. 1879. A crown of sonnets dedicated to the sons of Galich. Copyright edition. Lions. From the press Stauropegion Institute
It is clear that with the beginning of the First world war, the Ukrainians, created on the basis of the Ruthenian Diaspora in the United States, was on the side of the block of the Central powers against the Entente because in the block of the Central powers were Austria-Hungary, supported by the Ukrainians, and in the Entente – Russia, which opposed the anti-Russian project. This continued until, until the United States entered the war on the Entente side.
Here as wrote “Freedom” on those Rusyns USA, who retained affection for his brothers from Russia:
“Russophile Galician descent pray with their priests, that the Muscovites were able to cut their brothers, sons or parents who serve in the Austrian army, pray, therefore, for the death of his family… The more Russia will not be able to conquer the Galician Ukrainians, which from a national perspective are much higher than our brothers, which are under Russia“.
These words are not only the hatred of the Russian and Ruthenian Russophile, but the thesis of the superiority of the Galicians on the other Ukrainians, which will be actively used in Ukraine from the beginning of independence.
Of the 14 dialects, dialects and sub-dialects of the Russian language in Ukraine “above all” was only one Galician
Thus, we can state the existence of a single coordinated process of formation of Ukrainians in the United States of America and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which exchanged information, emissaries, had common ideology and purpose. Despite the fact that in each case was a sharp demarcation with the Ruthenians, who were standing on the Russophile position. During the First world war in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, these people were partially destroyed as sympathetic to Russia. That said, the official expert attorney F. Vania on the court, where the number of Ruthenian intellectuals condemned to death for Russophilia: “Who uses Russian language, may not be a good Austrian; Austrians are good only Ukrainians, therefore, all members of the Russian-people’s party – traitors, because they are not Ukrainians“. And these people were lucky that they had a court. Many Ruthenian Russophiles destroyed without trial in the concentration camps who just killed, not even exporting to a concentration camp. Despite the fact that denounced them neighbors Rusyns who decided to become Ukrainian. After the arrival of Russian troops in Austria-Hungary, and their speedy retreat, many of the survivors Ruthenian Russophiles left Austria-Hungary with the retreating forces of the Russian Empire, because he knew that otherwise face imminent death. They lived on the territory of Russia and disappeared in the Russian people.
A third center of Ukrainians of the little Russian regionalism
Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language, V. I. Dal’, composed in 1850
As for the Ruthenian Russophiles American Diaspora, many of them withdrew from the Union and joined the Russian Orthodox Church in the United States before the 1917 revolution, therefore, became part of the Russian Diaspora.
Thus, as in Galicia, where there were about five million Ruthenians and the Ruthenian Diaspora in the United States, which then numbered about a million people, almost simultaneously, there is a division into Russophiles and Russophobes, the latter became known as Ukrainians. The division was in a fairly rigid form, which during the First world war moved into the bloodshed. Resulting from this demarcation of the Ukrainian Diaspora of the USA and Galicia were set up in the most negative towards the Russian. Of course, it concerned not only ideology, but sometimes they manage to infect Russophobia and the broad masses.
As for the Ukraine, where lived 35 million people, the formation of Ukrainians in this area had come the other way. Part of a liberal little Russian intelligentsia was fascinated by regionalism, that was then called the various regional currents, where it was decided to emphasize the characteristics of a particular area. They promoted the little Russian language, which was then one of the South-Russian dialects. To separatism was still far away, but regular contacts with the leaders of the Ukrainians of Galicia led to the formation of the third centre of nationalization, which was not so aggressive as Diasporans and galichanskogo, but in the disintegration of the Russian Empire, its existence led to the formation of the Ukrainian separatist state structures.
Title photo: the Rusyns. Illustration from the book by Yakov golovatsky “Folk songs of Galician and Ugrian Rus”