CC0 / U. S. Navy photo by Intelligence Specialist 1st Class Kenneth Moll /all types of aerial targets are detected at a distance of several thousand kilometers — Russian system of missile attack warning in the next few years will strengthen the latest over-the-horizon radar “Container”. They work with enlarged viewing angle and can simultaneously follow thousands of objects. The first such radar is the army will get to the end of the year. About the new missile defense umbrella of the country — in the material RIA Novosti.
The development of a two-coordinate horizon radar 29Б6 “Container” engineers of the research Institute of distant radio communication began in the mid-1990s. the Principle of this radar is the reflection of radio waves from the ionosphere of the Earth: directed at a particular angle signal “bounces” from the ionized atmospheric layers, hits the target and reflected from it is returned to the receiver.Thus determines the exact location of the object, its speed and direction of flight. “Containers” for the most part sharpened to the detection of aerodynamic targets at altitudes up to a hundred kilometers. That is, they will not see a ballistic missile in flight, although able to detect them starting from the surface of the Earth.These radars are able to detect and track not only such large and relatively slow objects like planes and cruise missiles, according to the developer station recognizes a hypersonic missile at a record distance of three thousand kilometers. All in all, the “Container” can hold at gunpoint at the same time five thousand air objects of various types and characteristics.The first sample of “Container” embarked on an experimental combat duty in 2013. the Transmitting part of a station located in Nizhny Novgorod region, and reception — in Mordovia, where the scattered field from almost 150 of the thirty-meter antennas. The place of deployment was chosen given the fact that the “Container” has a dead zone with a length of 900 kilometers. Therefore, the station placed in the interior of the country, where it will control the air space of neighboring countries.The first Container runs in a westerly direction. Under his control — a large part of Europe and, consequently, the main areas of deployment of NATO troops. This is especially important given the recent termination of the Agreement on intermediate-range and shorter-range — radar allows to maintain constant surveillance of NATO air and missile bases.According to the Director General Kirill Makarov NIIDAR, in the future, such stations will cover Russia from all sides — it is planned that the “Containers” will be placed in the far East, North-West and South directions.
© Photo : Russian Ministry Of Defense. The reception part of the radar “Container”
On the approaches
Another new element of the system of missile warning — shore-horizon radar surface waves “Sunflower”. These radars will monitor air and surface situation in the coastal economic zone of Russia. Their capabilities are more modest than the “Container”, the stations operate at the distance of 450 kilometers.One of the main benefits of the “Sunflower” — all-weather capability. However, he sees well as ships and aircraft, made by technology “stealth”, and standard equipment. In fully automatic mode, the station detects and maintains up to 300 sea and 100 aircraft objects. While they clearly klassificeret — defines a group or single target, air or surface sizing.
Information from the radar quickly comes to command posts and coastal defense, where they take the decision to use anti-aircraft weapons.The first Association, received the “Sunflowers” has become the Caspian flotilla. The crews of missile ships regularly hone interaction calculations of the radar on the teachings and get them to targeting conditional on targets in the Caspian sea. The sailors recognized that a new radar was much easier to follow given to them by waters and the airspace above it.Russia recently launched the “Sunflowers” on two areas of the new station master of the military in the far East and the Baltic.
© Photo : GK RTI. Over-the-horizon radar “Sunflower-e”
However, despite high efficiency, the “Sunflowers” and “Containers” — is only an auxiliary tool in early warning system. The first violin is played station high prefabrication type “Voronezh”. They are designed for long-range detection — first ballistic Intercontinental missiles.The impressive capabilities of one of the features of the station — the minimum time for Assembly and staging for combat duty. Factory “Voronezh” comes in the form of unified systems and containers, and then quickly assembled on site subject to the tactical conditions of the area of deployment.
© RIA Novosti / Igor Zarembo. Soldiers during military duty at the radar station “Voronezh-DM” in the village dunaivka pryazovs Kaliningrad regionof the first modification radar “Voronezh-M”, located in Leningrad region, the Russian military in 2006. She works in the meter range and covers the area from Morocco to Spitsbergen. A later modification of the index “DM” and “CM” respectively, operate in the UHF and microwave regimes.Ground echelon radar scattered around the perimeter of the station are on combat duty in Kaliningrad, Irkutsk, and Orenburg regions, the Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk and Altai territories. 2024-mu another “Voronezh” will be placed in the Crimea.
© RIA Novosti / Alexander Yuriev. VZG radar “Voronezh”Recall that the construction of layered early warning system in the USSR began in the early 1960s. the prototype of the modern system became composed of two radar “Dnepr” radar detection of ballistic missiles in Murmansk and Riga, from where the information came to the command post in the suburbs.The first radar was a huge structure, was difficult to maintain and different monstrous power consumption. After the Soviet collapse, a radar early warning system nodes left outside of Russia and ceased to operate. However, some of the stations built in Soviet times, for example, in Belarus and Kazakhstan, work to this day.
© RIA Novosti / Pavel Lvov. Soldiers on duty in control room radar “Dnepr” in the Lovozero district of the Murmansk region