November 7, new style – the birthday of the Creator of the world’s best missiles, academician Mikhail Yangel, the legend of which is that the West claimed that Yangel – a German rocket, stolen by special services of the USSR, the famous Wernher von Braun, the Nazi rocket scientists after the collapse of the Third Reich brought Americans in the United States. But the people will not lie, they remember and are proud to be Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel, a scientist and designer of rocket and space technology, academician of the USSR (1966), twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1959, 1961), laureate of Lenin and State prizes, was born in Irkutsk province, in the village of Zyryanova, in 1911.
His connection with southern Russia is far away: grandfather of the future Lawrence of academician Yangel – a descendant of the Zaporozhye Cossacks lived on the Chernigov region in the village of Mushrooms. It’s almost on the border of present-day Ukraine and Belarus. Lawrence hot was the Cossack: when the pan took his wife, he set fire to the landlord’s building and received the “eight years of hard labor in the Lena Goldfields and perpetual exile in Siberia. So Angeli steel Siberians. Parents Yangelya settled on the Bank of the Ilim in the village of Zyryanova, they had 12 children.
Interesting to see which path of studies and teachings passed a peasant’s son from a large family, the future, the outstanding designer. After Zyryanskaya school, he studied in Nizhneilimskiy higher primary school. Already a member of the Komsomol in 1926 he moved to Moscow to his elder brother Constantine, who had studied at the University. Had to combine study with work in the factory of steklografom. Then – the fabric factory in Krasnoarmeysk. Michael graduated from the school trade schools, in 1931, the 20-year-old was admitted to the ranks of the Communist party and sent to study at the Moscow aviation Institute where he studied well, was Secretary of the Komsomol Committee of the Institute.
Still a student in 1935, he went to work in the aviation Bureau of Nikolai Polikarpov, who became the head of his MSC thesis “a high-Altitude fighter with a pressurized cabin”, presciently seeing student traits and the fate of Lomonosov.
In the design Bureau of the famous Polikarpov Yangel worked for almost ten years, reached the position of assistant chief designer, participated in the design and development of fighter I-16, I-180, I-185, modifications, Po-2 etc.
In 1938 Yangel with a group of leading experts in the field of aviation has been in business in the United States. During the great Patriotic war, he worked at the plant producing combat fighters. In 1948 he enrolled in the Academy of aviation industry, after which with honors in 1950 became involved in the development of rocket and space technology at NII-88 in Korolev.
About R-11, the first in the Union, the engine of which worked on nitric acid and kerosene, the daughter of academician Yangel Lyudmila said: “Father and when he became Director of NII-88, also continued to curate. By the way, this is the only missile, which includes two chief designer Yangel and Korolev. She’s very long stood in service. The dispute between father and Sergei Pavlovich was purely technical. One acid, the other – oxygen. Father for Autonomous system control, Korolev – against. Then, when they had gone, solved different problems.”
And here’s a personal “host” Yangel, linking it with the Ukrainian SSR in the rest of my life in April 1954 M. K. Yangel was appointed chief designer of special design Bureau “southern” in Dnepropetrovsk (OKB-586).
22 Jun 1957 held its first successful test of the first yangelevskogo medium-range missiles R-12 (American terminology SS-4). According to experts, “the new solution has resulted in greater range (up to 2000 km). In addition, it was extremely important, new fuel components for the missiles allowed to develop and continue to spread in the whole series of future military missiles a brand new solution – storing missiles in constant combat readiness in silos, which significantly increased the protection of rocket complexes”. It was the first Soviet missiles to be deployed in combat positions in large numbers since 1959
But in June 1960 at the site were successfully tested on the following systems yangelevskogo KB – missile intermediate-range R-14 (SS-5).
Yangel got ahead of the Queen for two years.
However, a tragic event occurred (then about him were not reported): October 24, 1960 during the execution of pre-launch work for a quarter of an hour before the first test launch of missile R-16, the first Intercontinental rocket Yangelya, occurred unauthorized engine start of the second stage and the rocket exploded on the launch pad. When the fiery explosion burned from 74 to 126 (figures vary) people, among them – the commander of the rocket forces, chief Marshal of artillery Nedelin M. and a large group of leading experts KB. He Yangel and a few others miraculously survived, as evidenced by, “walked away to smoke.” Then 49-year-old Mikhail K., charred, collapsed with a heart attack, experiencing much loss of staff, the catastrophe, the question of Khrushchev and the reproaches of the widows: “why are you still alive?”
First successful launch of an SS-7 was carried out four months later, on 21 February 1961 That allowed the USSR in October 1962 to try to place in Cuba 24 missile launchers of the SS-4 and 16 launchers missiles SS-5 in response to the location of the in 1961 the United States in Turkey medium-range missiles “Jupiter” (“Cuban missile crisis”).
By the way, academician laughed when I remembered the famous saying of Khrushchev after a visit to yangelevskogo KB in Dnepropetrovsk: “we Do rockets as sausages, on the machine.”
This, however, was close to the truth. In 1965, the strategic missile forces received a third-generation missile R-36 (SS-9), at the time, became the most powerful rocket in the world. Then it was equipped with a booster stage and received the status of global, because it could hit any point, intercepting her at the time was impossible. By 1974, the Soviet Union deployed 288 missiles SS-9 all types standing in service until 1980.
1965-1966 gg. to include the peak deployment of Soviet medium-range missiles SS-4 and SS-5, most of which were aimed at objects placed in Western Europe.
Historians of domestic rocket engineering write: “It is in KB Yangel in the 1960s to begin work on the creation of the first fully mobile ballistic missiles. One of the new ballistic missiles made of a combination: the first step was working on solid fuel, the second liquid. In General, the new missile had a number of valuable innovations and pioneering solutions… New rolling complex has become a transport-launch canister, from which the rocket was launched. At the same time was applied and the so-called “mortar launch”: the rocket flew out of the container like a cork from a bottle of champagne, and her engines were started already in flight”.
The decision of M. K. Yangelya on the transition to this type of start was quite revolutionary, ahead of the US for five years.
Since the mid-1960s CB “South” was to design and build an Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), the fourth generation — the RS-16 (SS-17) and RS-20 (SS-18). In them were embodied non-trivial design finds, who were born in a difficult debate in the creative environment of leading experts of the “South”; Yangel even fired his long time colleague of chief designer of silo launchers of E. G. Rudyak, who later called the design solutions Yangelya miracle.
“His name is associated with the emergence of a fundamentally new direction in the field of rocketry. … It is important to note that Yangel had a remarkable ability not only to propose new original ideas, but also to translate them into specific design developments and to bring to the final stage of serial production,” – wrote academician B. N. Petrov.
In the famous Treaty on the reduction of strategic offensive arms, signed on 31 July 1991 between the USSR and the USA, there was a special clause, according to which the Soviet Union has twice reduced the number of heavy ballistic missiles SS-18. Thanks to Gorbachev, the Americans have carried out his dream on the elimination of SS-18, because it was the only system that provides guaranteed asymmetric response on our part, despite the Declaration of the US on neprobivaemosti its system of SOYBEAN.
The SS-18, classic combat rocket, as the most powerful ICBM in the world, was the last work of Mikhail Yangel. Last year he was very seriously ill. Affected by the consequences of the five (!) heart attacks, a huge demanding job: an outstanding designer died 60-year-old, October 25, 1971, upon arriving at the Ministry, where he was honored as hero of the day.
Academician buried at the Novodevichy cemetery.
The name of academician Yangel was named the school as well as an ocean liner-a cargo ship launched shipbuilders of the Kherson in 1972 In the Pamirs is peak yangelevskogo. The name of academician Yangel to the streets in Moscow Moscow, Kiev, Dnepropetrovsk, Baikonur, Bratsk and Zheleznogorsk, a town in the Irkutsk region, an asteroid and a crater of the moon.
It is gratifying that do not fall under a wave of modern Ukrainian renaming “Design Bureau “southern” them. Yangel” in Dnepropetrovsk (now Dnieper).
On the building of the MAI in 1972 was a memorial plaque with the inscription: “Let this life we had the winds and storms, thunderstorms and storms, but we managed to still go through all these hardships… Let allotted us by nature, the remaining years will be free of storms and gales, but always in the struggle for the happiness of ordinary people, for the happiness of our children and grandchildren. (M. K. Yangel)”.
Mikhail Yangel had a much deeper talent than was commonly believed in his time than I do now. Apparently, his glory is found.