Ukrainian “Nuremberg”: how the Nazis were tried in the USSR

Украинские «Нюрнберги»: как судили нацистов в УССР

Украинские «Нюрнберги»: как судили нацистов в УССР

In the autumn of 1947 in the USSR, including the Ukraine was the number of trials, which punished Nazi war criminals and their accomplices.

Recall that the first in the USSR and in the world, the trial of the Nazis was held in Kharkov 15 Dec 1943. The initiator and, in many respects the organizer of this event was Kharkov the famous pilot hero of the Soviet Union Valentina Stepanovna Grizodubova.

Украинские «Нюрнберги»: как судили нацистов в УССР

Defendants Nazis on trial in Kharkov

Then on a dock there were three Germans – V. Langheld, G. Ritz, R. Reclaw and the driver of the Gestapo Mikhail Bulanov. By the way, found the last of the policemen was operating in the Kharkiv region, Alexander possevin was shot in the fall of 1988.

From major trials of winter of 1946 in the USSR over two in Nikolaev and Kiev, and the latter is known, ended public hangings 12 German murderers directly into Kalinin square, now called independence square.

Украинские «Нюрнберги»: как судили нацистов в УССР

The execution of fascist criminals in Kiev at the Maidan (square of Kalinin)

Then an event occurred which does not fit the concept of totalitarianism, hammered in the head has two generations: the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of may 26, 1947 death penalty in the Soviet Union was abolished and the Supreme measure of punishment had been 25 years in the camps.

“The flea,” – says the skeptic, but for the “bloody regime” which did not condemn all Nazis and sixes, was not caught on forests and burrows Bandera and “forest brothers”, won rasplakalsya criminality, was at least strange to stop the executions. But the fact remains.

At the same time the Minister of internal Affairs S. Kruglov took the initiative “on hold during October – December 1947 USSR Ministry of internal Affairs jointly with the MGB and office of public Prosecutor of the USSR in the cities of Sevastopol, Chisinau, Chernigov, Vitebsk, Bobruisk, Stalin, Poltava, Novgorod Gomel and open trials of former soldiers of enemy armies that process by creating crimes and atrocities against Soviet citizens under occupation of the USSR”.

For the preparation and conduct of the trials was convened by the Commission: Chairman – N. Rychkov (Minister of justice of the USSR), G. Safonov (the USSR Prosecutor’s office), Sergei Kruglov (MVD USSR), S. Ogoltsov (MGB), I. golyakov (Supreme court of the USSR), S. Golunski (Ministry of foreign Affairs of the USSR).

24-30 October 1947 was held the Stalinist process (Stalino, now Donetsk) and the twelve war criminals. The meetings were held in the regional theatre of Opera and ballet in the lobby was located exhibition – documentary evidence of crimes of the Nazis.

The main accused was General Kurt röpke, commander of the 46th infantry division, and then the 20th army corps, whose soldiers committed mass crimes in the Donbass.

Among the defendants were the commandants of the cities (G. Wilhelm, commander of Konstantinovka, R. Jagow – ortskommandantur Slavyansk-the resort) and the field officers of the gendarmerie (Maester-policeman of Zechendorf, the chief of the gendarmerie of Artemovsk), directly organize mass executions, pogroms and arson, sending Soviet citizens in the camps or to work in Germany.

The defendants received 25 years in prison each. Until 1956, when the Soviet government allowed them to return to Germany, lived all.

23-29 November 1947 in Poltava took place the process of the military Tribunal of the Kiev military district over Nazi criminals and their collaborators (a total of 22 people). The Prosecutor at the trial was major-General of justice D. Chertkov, the one that will be known after the Khabarovsk process over voobrazheniye the Japanese Kwantung army and “unit 731” which was engaged in the development and testing of biological weapons.

Украинские «Нюрнберги»: как судили нацистов в УССР

The General-the major of justice Dmitry Chertkov

Poltava process took place in the municipal house of culture and was open.

Special feature of the meetings was the prisoners – most officers of the SS division “Dead head”. The chief of the security police and of the gendarmerie in Kiev and Poltava areas the General-the Lieutenant of Paul Scheer and commander of the 213th security division of major-General Hans von Chammer und Austen, who created the atrocities in the region, had already hanged in Kiev. Moscow decided that the main culprit of the process will be the commander of the 3rd Panzer division SS “Dead head” major-General Helmut Becker and 21 others V. Sharkov, M. Kuhn, M. Weidlich, L. Shorman, O. Reighard, F. Salger, V. Schubert, A., singer, R. Massmann, V. Mickel, K. Hoffmann, R. Sut, A. GAUS, K. Ted, G Ganser, I. Weiss, K. Glayn, O. Jensen, V. Cannas, V. Coka. R. Hunte.

Brigadenfuhrer SS Helmut Herman Becker was a tough nut to crack. The son of a painter from Brandenburg, he had a distinguished military career. Ideological Nazis joined the SS in 1933. Was a member of the all military operations 1936-39: the Anschluss, occupation of Sudetenland, the Polish campaign, where he commanded a battalion of the SS division “Dead head”.

Fought in France. In 1941 Becker scored in Demianski the boiler, where the division suffered huge losses, recaptured Kharkov in March 1943. For the battles at the Kursk bulge, his regiment received the honorary title “Theodor Eicke” in honor of the murdered in Kharkov the first commander of the 3rd tank division “Dead head”.

Distinguished personal bravery, though reputed to be an alcoholic, a sexual deviant.

From June 1944 he became commander of the SS division “Dead head”, actively resisted our troops at lake Balaton, in Poland. Along with the division he surrendered to the Americans, but was extradited to the USSR. Initially detained in camps No. 32, 27, and then transferred to the prison №1 of Poltava.

At trial, Becker was out of line, did not hide their large-scale crime and said in court: “the Main task of the SS division “Dead head” was the total extermination of the Soviet people. Our division is staffed with individuals of the who were staunch enemies of communism…” Although it was hinted at leniency, and the Germans knew about the refusal of the USSR from the death penalty.

29 November 1947 Becker and his bloody colleagues was sentenced to 25 years in prison (R. Hunte got 20 years). Most of them survived and returned to Germany.

Becker passed two camps in Vorkuta, where he not only actively sabotaged the work, but even tried to raise a rebellion. Only the times have changed, and in the country criminal code of the USSR returned the death penalty. Becker re-tried, and on 9 September 1952 he was sentenced by the Tribunal of the Donskoy military district to death, the sentence was executed on 18 February 1953.

The last “Ukrainian Nuremberg” was held from 17 to 25 November 1947 in theater. Of Schors Of Chernihiv. The uniqueness of Chernihiv process was that here was judged by 3 Germans (Lieutenant Colonel Bruno Bauer and Stefan von Tulf and the commander of the military district Henry Droste) and 13 of the Magyars (Lieutenant General Zoltan Aldea-Dad, major General Laszlo Szabo, Istvan Baumann, the derda Vukovar and Geza Ehrlich, Colonel Sandor Zach, Franz Amon, SAFRAN Bela, Miklos Mickey and Tivadar székely DSC, majors Laszlo Shiprock and des Benefi, Honved józsef boroș).

According to a Memorandum Rychkova and Kruglov to Stalin, all 138 convicted war criminals, including 23 General, 78 officers and 37 non-commissioned officers and soldiers -117 Germans, Hungarians 13, 7 Romanians and 1 Austrian. Among them was listed by the chiefs of garrisons and the office of 7 people, the local commandant – 12, the commanders of armies and corps – 5, commanders of divisions – 15, the commanders of regiments – 30, chiefs of the death squads of the SS, police and field gendarmerie – 17, employees of the Abwehr – 6.

Украинские «Нюрнберги»: как судили нацистов в УССР

Process in Nikolaev

As pointed out by the authors note: “Workers of the republics and regions, where there were trials, in their statements expressed satisfaction with the punishment of war criminals”.

Of course, it was not all the trials of Nazis and traitors (in closed court sessions were also convicted war criminals 876), which continued further in time.

Alas, as demonstrated by the experience of the Baltic States and Ukraine, the Nazi virus was tenacious, and therefore it is necessary to remember the methods of prevention and control. The American experience of de-Nazification we have already described, now the thought of processes. Many believe that the experience will be useful.
Oleksandr Sevidov

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