17 October marked the 205th anniversary of the birth of poet, writer, folklorist, activist Galician-Russian movement Jacob F. golovatsky. In life he always followed the rule: “Know yourself, will you!” This motto not with deeds. From the first youth poetry Yakov golovatsky went to the study of language, history and culture of their region, and then to the worship of the Russian language and literature, the study of East Slavic cultures…
He was born in 1814 in a village of Lviv region. The example of his father, the Uniate priest, Jacob graduated from the theological faculty of Lviv University. It seemed that the path of the priest is predetermined. But the inquisitive young man learned the essence of the Galician-Russian nation. In those difficult years, when Galicia was under Austrian influence, he became one of the founders of the “Russian Troika”.
1838. At University there were those who began in earnest to study and defend russkoyazychnye in Galicia.
Yakov began to study Russian language without the help of teachers, which, of course, was not easy. But the young man was excited. While in this area he could find only one book on grammar edition German-Russian grammar Game.
Self-Jacob found and copied collections of little-Russian songs.
He had supporters. Similar passion was the student of Markian Shashkevych. He proposed to unite in a coterie, where he joined another Ruthenian — Ivan Vahylevych.
The three friends were inseparable in their interests Russian literature — meeting, spoke exclusively in Russian literature, politics, history, sang Ruthenian songs. Their “circle” called “Russian Troika”.
Jacob bought a lot of Russian books. So, in their library appeared in the Polish-Russian grammar, Derzhavin’s “Lear”, “the little Russian village”, the works of Pushkin and other literature.
Gradually the circle was joined by new representatives. Students began to prepare their edition of the anthology “dawn”. When they have selected the material, wrote articles, had a question about spelling. Decided to print without the Latin alphabet, and threw out “s” and solid character. But to see the light collection is not destined — it was banned censorship.
The club members were unaware that joined them “like-minded” – a Ignatius Pauli, a pole-Mazur, who came ostensibly to learn the Russian language, intended to send Rusyns in the ranks of the radical poles. In the meetings there were ideas about how to get rid of the Germans and to equip the Polish Republic. Mazur was a recruiter of activists to support the impending uprising. He did ambiguously — lured notebooks with folk songs and sold it to a publisher, rewritten already Latin. Then the class took a firm decision — not to participate in the uprising, and to focus their activities on education and support of the Galician Ruthenians.
In those years he wrote many poems and poetic translations:Chomu are so dumb, Yak Bulo long,Oh God forbid!Nicol svatem the beer is not brewed,Svatem Christmas service, not serve,the Holy Voderman candles are not bitches,Oh Bo vzhe long, as the truth is mute,Bo vzhe Xia kings to war,And the king on the king’s army sbire,And brother against brother with the sword, mahoe,Oh Bo son votca to the right tagne,sons and a daughter on the mother’s anger on a copy,Oh Bo Kum Kuma will svodit s Rozum,Soused neighbor zbase bread.Church Slavonic language in the region is gaining popularity. One of the most influential people, count tarnowsky, heard a rumor about Hobbies students. The count took assistance in working with ancient manuscripts, monuments of old Russian writing. Holovatsky, along with a friend went.
As he recalled Jacob F., rare in the library, “we found some documents from the XVI century on the Russian language, treaties of the Polish kings from the[great] kN[Asami] Moscow and the Crimean Khan. In particular, we are interested in correspondence with the Crimean Khan Davlet-Girey in Russian, write Russian cursive…”
Journey through Western Galicia brought the companions a lot of reflections and discoveries of a people’s language, customs of the peasants…
Working with the archives of count Tarnowski, the students studied the ancient manuscripts and all the more strengthened in the thought of their nationality Galician Ruthenians, could clearly see the signs of the polonisation of the country.
Then actively introduced the idea of the existence of the Galician Ruthenians as part of the Polish people. Educated Rusyns actively opposed such facilities, declare the poles and polonophile. Said protest and the circle of the Lviv University. Shashkevych published an article of protest against the Latin alphabet.
Unfortunately, playing the “people’s business” impact on learning of students. Yakov golovatsky left in the second year. But soon, supplementing school studies, he changed his Alma mater, teaching at the Budapest University (where he met well-known panslavist Ian Collard).
Before returning to the city and their University, holovatsky walked on their own Galician and Ugrian Rus, leaving the travelogue (“Journey through Galician and Ugrian Rus”).
Materials the once forbidden anthology “the dawn” still saw the light in 1837 in Hungary in the form of a collection of “mermaid Dnistrova”. In this class stands as the author and translator. And later in the collection “Vnoc Rusyns at harvest,” he published translations of twenty Serbian songs.
In the revolutionary events of 1848 holovatsky defended the national rights of the people of Galicia. During these years he was in the rank of Professor worked at the Department of Russian language and literature at Lviv University.
But soon abruptly changed and the life of Yakov Fedorovich. In 60-ies he was suspended from work in the Lviv University and teaching in the public schools, banned created the textbooks. Then he decided to move to Russia, of the Greek Catholic priests of the faith have converted to Orthodoxy and to the last years of his life he headed the Vilna Archeographic Commission.
Class has devoted considerable time to the publication of “a Geographical dictionary of the West-Slavic and Slavic lands and adjacent countries”, whose goal was the restoration of the local Slavic place names after a foreign (often German) renaming like instead of Lemberg of Lviv and others.
The order of St. Stanislaus and St. Anne, the gold medal of the Imperial Russian geographical society, the gold medal Uvarov, a Golden ring with ruby and diamonds from the Emperor… — here is a partial list of awards F. Y. holovatsky for merits in front of Russia.
Researchers last period of the activities of James F. golovatsky pointed out that in those years he tirelessly preached “the unity of the Russian nation from the Carpathians to Kamchatka”.
During his life, this tireless worker has left a big creative heritage. Golovatsky — the author of many works of different fields: poems, fiction, articles (historical, linguistic, archaeological, ethnographic). Among his famous works — “the Grammar of the Russian language”, “Rasprava on the southern Russian language”, “On the literary-intellectual movement Rusyns”, “anthology of Church Slavonic and old Rus”, “Carpathian Rus”…
Its a long trek deep into Galicia and Transcarpathia, gathering the folklore of the Ruthenian people was not left forgotten. We are talking about your home work life holovatsky — compiled the collection “Folk songs and Ugric Galician Rus”. In the 70 years of the NINETEENTH century this four-volume edition was printed in Moscow.
So, a native of Galicia has dedicated his life to the service of the Slavs, the Russian language and Russia. Unfortunately, in Galicia it is not honored, and the population of the region actively studying Polish – hoping to work on the Polish gentry.
Sofia the CANON